Army Alpha Examination; U.S. Army Alpha Intelligence Test The Army Alpha [5] was developed shortly after the United States entered World War I by an. Army Alpha and Army Beta intelligence testing were crucial in assessing and classifying individual soldiers during World War I. This testing. The correlation of Army Alpha with academic marks in high schools and military academies yields an appreciably higher correlation for the latter group.

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American psychologists lost little time in following suit.

For each test a series of sample items correctly answered was given. The techniques developed by the psychologists would have had little place within, and indeed would have been given little hearing by, the army if that institution had remained at its intimate prewar level.

It demands almost ontelegence writing since responses were indicated by underscoring, crossing out, or checking. An examiner and demonstrator stand at the front of the inrelegence, and orderlies around the room in various places to check that nobody is cheating. Thus, zrmy response to persistent worries that intelligence test- ing was being manipulated by malingerers, the Psychology Division decided to nar- row the range on its lowest score category, level E, so that the number of recruits 55 Yerkes, ed.

It is a story of negotiation and trans- formation.

Many cases of mental disorder were discovered and referred to the psychiatrists for examination. However, recent works on the role of au- dience in the production of scientific knowledge, like those of John Law and R. The shakiness of the support for psychological testing came to the fore just at the moment of Yerkes’s greatest military triumph.

Many men of the commissioned officer type and a large amount of non-commissioned officer material. What differences seem most striking? A group of draftees, the size of which is determined by the seating capacity of examining room it varied from one hundred to five hundred men is reported to the psychological examining building for mental testing.

The United States, New York: The army tests engendered a variety of social uses. Dorr’s report was issued on 10 June The program of intelligence testing that was adopted for army use was set out in a memo from Surgeon General Gorgas to Adjutant General John S.


On 22 Julyfor example, Brigadier General L. Science History Publications, ; and Donald N. The ability to handle men, the gift of making men follow is seldom shown on paper.

Revising the Test

Over five hundred additional clerks were used in the examining service in the 35 different camps in which psychological examining had been established. For example, Goldthwaite Dorr reported that Lieutenant Colonel Schmitter, commander of the Base Hospital at Camp Lee, while recognizing very clearly the narrow limitations of the usefulness of the [intelli- gence] test, and the extreme caution with which it ought to be used, and the danger of laying down any hard and fast rules based upon it as to ability for military service, nevertheless regards it as well worth the time and expense and a system which ought to be used.

McComas at Princeton, were more troubled, worried that, without qualitative data, quantitative ratings alone would not provide the kind of information necessary “if our purpose is to supply material which will enable an officer to classify his men. Do not watch any other man to see what he does.

In only a few months the American army grew dramatically in size—ultimately fold, with over 3. Some system of selection of talents which is not affected by immaterial principles or virtues, no matter how splendid, something more scientific than the haphazard choice of men, something more systematic than preference or first impression, is necessary to be de- vised.

This last point was most crucial. Rather, it is one of negotiation and alteration, in which the knowl- edge producers, the audiences for the knowledge produced, and the knowledge itself all changed in the process of adapting to a new cultural location. Authentic Literacy Pedagogy Chapter 5: Moore, Camp Cody, reports that the Personnel Officer has assigned drafted men partly on the basis of psychological ratings, taking care to place an equal number of A, B, C, D, and E men in each organization.

Army Alpha, Army Brass, and the Search for Army Intelligence | John Carson –

The darker peoples of southern Europe and the Slavs of eastern Europe are less intelligent than the fair peoples of western and northern Europe. Soldiers who were illiterate or foreign speaking would take the Army Beta, the nonverbal equivalent of the exam. As the commanding officer of the 41st Company at Camp Lee graphically put it, “In selecting corporals and line sergeants the physical qualifications will ordinarily supersede the mental.


This page was last edited srmy 14 Novemberat In discussing one of the tests excluded from Army a, for example, Yerkes pointed out that “it was generally agreed that the Trabue type of completion test is a better measure of inrelegence than some of allha other tests finally accepted, as for example, the number-comparison or memory-for-digits tests.

For monthly data on the number of psychological examinations given see ibid. This was more obviously the case with the military, which required enormous concessions from Yerkes and his testers before it would seriously consider adopting their pro- gram. The nominal cause of the skir- mishing was the Psychological Division’s request—in keeping with the surgeon gen- eral’s memo of 3 January—for additional personnel and the construction of exam- ining buildings in each camp. Imagine you are in a large examination room.

In the end, he decided to treat anyone over the age of 14 as an adult. They represent the level of intelligence, which is very, very common among Spanish-Indian and Mexican families of the Southwest and also among Negroes. Although he too recommended certain revisions in the examining program, most especially the testing of officers only at the request of their commanders, Burt strongly 46 Yerkes, memo to Camp Division Surgeons, 24 Jan.

Army Alpha

They made necessary changes to the test to measure an individual’s abilities to place ar,y in the right field of the Army. Presidio, ; and Timothy K. Yoakum, late of the University of Texas and currently serving in the army’s Psychological Division; the members included Carl C.

Army Alpha answers given at bottom of page A company advanced 6 miles and retreated 2 miles. Second, certain shared terms, in this case intelligence, provided both a common language in which negotiation could take place and a locus for dispute.

Clifford, The Citizen Soldiers: