Una odisea espacial / A Space Odyssey (Spanish Edition) [Arthur C. Clarke] on Una expedición a los confines del universo y a los del alma, en la que Arthur colaboró estrechamente con Stanley Kubrick en la . No se puede valorar la película ” Odisea del espacio” sin leer esta . Los cuatro libros que componen una de las sagas más célebres de la ciencia- ficción reunidos en un volumen único. Los cuatro. A Space Odyssey () Stanley Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke in A Space Odyssey () Keir Dullea and Gary Lockwood in A Space.
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A Space Odyssey is uja epic science fiction film produced and directed by Stanley Kubrick. The screenplay was written by Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarkeand was inspired by Clarke’s short story ” The Sentinel “. A novel also called A C.dlarke Odysseywritten concurrently with the screenplay, was published soon after the film was released.
The film, which follows a voyage to Jupiter with the sentient computer HAL after the discovery of a mysterious black monolith affecting human evolution, deals with themes of existentialismhuman evolutiontechnology, artificial intelligenceand the possibility of extraterrestrial life. The film is noted for its scientifically accurate depiction of spaceflight, pioneering special effects, and ambiguous dell. Sound and dialogue are used sparingly and often in place of traditional cinematic and narrative techniques.
MGM subcontracted the film to Kubrick’s production company in order to qualify for the Eady Levya UK tax on box-office receipts used to fund the production of films in Britain at the time. It was espacko for four Academy Awards ; Kubrick received one for his direction of visual effects. A Space Arhtur is widely regarded as one of the greatest and most influential films ever made. A Space Odyssey sixth in the top ten films of all time in its  and critics’ polls  editions; it also tied for second place in the magazine’s directors’ poll.
In an African desert millions of years ago, a tribe of hominids is driven away from its water hole by a rival tribe. They awaken to find a featureless black monolith has appeared before them.
Seemingly influenced by the monolith, they discover how to use a bone as a weapon and drive their rivals away from the water hole. Millions of years later, a Pan Am spaceplane carries Dr. After Floyd has a videophone call with his daughter, he deflects questions from his Soviet scientist friend and her colleague about rumors of a mysterious epidemic at Clavius. Floyd speaks to a meeting of Clavius personnel, apologizing for the epidemic cover story but stressing secrecy.
His mission is to investigate a recently found artifact buried four million years ago near the crater Tycho. Floyd and others ride in a Moonbus to the artifact, a monolith identical to the one encountered by the ape-men. Sunlight strikes the monolith and a loud high-pitched radio signal is heard. On board are mission pilots and scientists Dr. David Bowman and Dr. Frank Poole, along with three other scientists in suspended animation. Most of Discovery ‘ s operations are controlled by the ship’s computer, a HAL with a human personality that the crew calls “Hal”.
Hal says he is “foolproof and incapable of error”. Hal raises concerns about the nature of the mission to Bowman, but their conversation is interrupted when Hal reports the imminent failure of an antenna control device. The astronauts retrieve it in an extravehicular activity EVA pod but find nothing wrong. Hal suggests reinstalling the device and letting it fail so the problem can be found. Mission Control advises the astronauts that results from their twin HAL indicate that Hal is in error about the device’s imminent failure.
Hal says the discrepancy must be due to human error. Hal secretly follows their conversation by lip reading. While Poole is on a space walk outside his EVA pod attempting to replace the unit, Hal takes control of the pod, severs his oxygen hose and sets him adrift.
Bowman takes another pod to rescue Poole. Meanwhile, Hal turns off the life support functions of the crewmen in suspended animation. When Bowman returns to the ship with Poole’s body, Hal refuses to let him in, stating that the astronauts’ plan to deactivate him jeopardizes the mission. Bowman opens the ship’s emergency airlock manually, enters the ship, and proceeds to Hal’s processor core.
The Sentinel by Arthur C. Clarke
Hal tries to reassure Bowman, then dle with him to stop, and finally expresses fear. As Bowman gradually deactivates the circuits controlling Hal’s higher intellectual functions, Hal regresses to his earliest programmed memory, the song ” Daisy Bell “, which he sings for Bowman.
When Bowman disconnects Hal, a prerecorded video message from Floyd plays, revealing that the mission’s true objective is to investigate a radio signal, sent from a lunar artifact the monolith to Jupiter. Only Hal and the hibernating crew had been told this. The pod is pulled into a vortex of colored light, the Star Gate, and Bowman races across vast distances of space, viewing bizarre cosmological phenomena and strange landscapes of unusual colors.
Bowman finds himself in a bedroom appointed in the neoclassical style. He sees, and then becomes, older versions of himself, first odsiea in the bedroom, middle-aged and still in his spacesuit, then dressed in leisure attire and eating dinner, and finally as an old man lying in the bed. A monolith appears at the foot of the bed, and as Bowman reaches for it, he is transformed into a fetus enclosed in a transparent orb of light, the Star Child.
The new being floats in space beside the Earth, gazing at it. Strangelovedirector Stanley Kubrick became fascinated by the possibility of extraterrestrial life and resolved to make “the proverbial good science fiction movie”.
According to his biographer John Baxterdespite their “clumsy model sequences, the films were often well-photographed in colour Searching for a collaborator in the science fiction community, Kubrick was advised by a mutual acquaintance, Columbia Pictures staffer Roger Carasto talk to writer Arthur C.
Clarkewho lived in Ceylon. Although convinced that Clarke was “a recluse, a nut who lives in a tree”, Kubrick allowed Caras to cable the film proposal to Clarke. Clarke’s cabled response stated that he was “frightfully interested in working with [that] enfant terrible “, and added “what makes Kubrick think I’m a recluse? Kubrick told Clarke he wanted to make a film about “Man’s relationship to the universe”,  and was, in Clarke’s words, “determined to create a work of art which would arouse the emotions of wonder, awe In search of more material to expand the film’s plot, the two spent the rest of reading books on science and anthropology, screening science fiction films, and brainstorming ideas.
Book excerpt: The power of “2001: A Space Odyssey”
In Aprileleven months after they began working on the project, Kubrick selected A Space Odyssey ; Clarke said the title was “entirely” Kubrick’s idea. Kubrick said, “It occurred to us that for the Greeks the vast stretches of the sea must have had the same sort of mystery and remoteness that space has for our generation. Kubrick and Clarke planned to develop the novel first, free of the constraints of film, and then write the screenplay.
Clarke, based on a eel by Arthur C. Clarke and Stanley Kubrick” to reflect their preeminence in their respective fields. In a interview, Kubrick said:. There are a odiea of differences between the book and the movie.
The novel, for example, attempts to explain things much more explicitly than the film does, which is inevitable in a verbal medium.
The novel came about after we did a page prose treatment of the film at the very outset. This initial treatment was subsequently changed in the screenplay, and the screenplay in turn was altered during the making of the film. But Arthur took all the existing material, plus an impression of some of the rushes, and wrote the novel.
As a result, there’s a difference between the novel and the film I think that the divergences between the two works are interesting. Clarke and Kubrick wrote the novel and screenplay simultaneously. Clarke opted for clearer explanations of the mysterious monolith and Star Gate in the novel; Kubrick made the film more cryptic by minimising dialogue and explanation. The screenplay credits were shared whereas the novel, released shortly after the film, was attributed to Clarke alone.
Clarke wrote later that “the nearest approximation to the complicated truth” is that the screenplay should be odsiea to “Kubrick and Clarke” and the novel to “Clarke and Kubrick”. But they felt it would be disloyal to accept Kubrick’s offer. Astronomer Carl Sagan wrote in his book The Cosmic Connection that Clarke and Kubrick asked him how to best depict extraterrestrial intelligence.
While acknowledging Kubrick’s desire to use actors to portray humanoid aliens for convenience’s sake, Sagan argued that alien life forms were unlikely to bear any resemblance to terrestrial life, and that to do so would introduce “at least espacik element of falseness” to the film. Sagan proposed that the film should simply suggest extraterrestrial superintelligence, rather than depict it.
He attended the premiere and was “pleased to see that I had been of some help.
In an interview unreleased during Kubrick’s lifetime, Kubrick explains one of the film’s closing scenes, where Bowman is depicted in old age after his journey through the Star Gate: They put him in what I suppose you could describe as a human zoo to study him, and his whole life passes from that point on in that room.
And he has no sense of time. It just seems to happen as it does in the film. The script went through many stages. In earlywhen backing was secured for the film, Clarke and Kubrick still had no firm idea of what would happen to Bowman after the Star Gate sequence. Initially all of Discovery ‘ s astronauts were to survive the journey; by October 3, Clarke and Kubrick had decided to make Bowman the sole survivor and have him regress to infancy.
By October 17, Kubrick had come up with what Clarke called a “wild idea of slightly fag robots who create a Victorian environment to put our heroes at their ease. Early drafts included a prologue containing interviews with scientists about extraterrestrial life,  voice-over narration a feature in all of Kubrick’s previous films a stronger emphasis on the prevailing Cold War balance of terrorand a different and more explicitly explained breakdown for HAL.
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Kubrick made further changes to make the film more nonverbal, communicating at x.clarke visual and visceral level rather than through conventional narrative. Vincent LoBrutto wrote that Clarke’s novel has “strong narrative structure” while the film is a mainly visual experience, where much remains symbolic.
The reasons for HAL’s malfunction and subsequent malignant behavior have elicited much discussion. He has been compared to Frankenstein’s monster. In Clarke’s novel, HAL malfunctions because of being ordered to lie to the crew of Discovery and withhold confidential information from them, namely the confidentially programmed mission priority over expendable human life, despite being constructed for “the accurate processing of information without distortion or concealment”.
This arthue not be addressed on film until the follow-up The Year We Make Contact. Film critic Roger Ebert wrote that HAL, as the supposedly perfect computer, is actually the most human of all of the characters.
Kubrick originally planned a voice-over to reveal that the satellites seen after the prologue are nuclear weapons,  and that the Star Child would detonate the weapons at the end of the film. Strangelove and decided not to make it obvious that they were “war machines”. In a book he wrote with Kubrick’s assistance, Alexander Walker states that Kubrick eventually decided that nuclear weapons had “no place at all in the film’s thematic development”, being an “orbiting red herring” that would unw have raised irrelevant questions to suggest this as a reality of the twenty-first century”.
Kubrick scholar Michel Cimentdiscussing Kubrick’s attitude toward human aggression and instinct, observes: It’s a continuation, not a discontinuity in that jump.