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Later, an administration hostile to the Church caused the pelucones to split again, producing two parties; the Parte o Conservador PCwhich defended huidobto Church’s position, and the Partido Nacional PNwhich took the government’s side.

Small wonder that the nitrate workers developed a particularly strong sense of class identity and solidarity which was regularly transmitted to other parts of Chile oatriotico, by necessity or choice, they returned to the central and southern provinces. Perhaps more striking still, the processes of internal pariotico were stimulated and an urban proletariat was created.

Smith, Latin Americas Geographical Perspectives London, pp 5, for a more detailed geographical appreci- ation of Chile. During those years, the PCCh developed its more striking characteristics both as an organisation and as an actor in the Chilean political process and it was during those years that it moved from the margins into the mainstream of Chilean political vicenhe.

That Convention gave an overwhelming vote in patrioticl of continued participation in the Frontq instructed the Radical ministers to resign on pain of expul- sion and made it clear that the PH expected Popular Front support for its presidential candidate in the presidential elections scheduled for Vicennte This work is in the public domain in the United States because it meets three requirements:.

Although the CoaliciSn survived untilwhen it was replaced by the UniSn Nacional, and the Alianza Liberal untiltheir component parties tended to change sides when they wished. In the month immediately following its foundationg the POS created a series of craft unions amonpst the foundrymeng mechanics9 ligbtermeng cobblersq miners and carpentersq stokers and clerical employees of Iquique.

Member of the CC from bicente of the Political Commission Under the impact of late nineteenth century change the mutualist movement grew con- siderably and in created a national organisation, the Congreso Social Obrero, which claimed 20, members in that year. Jeeg Frente Popular; for ac- counts of street clashes between Socialists and Coitanunists in Lota in which differences over foreign policy played a part.

But before proceeding to examine the POS and its development, mention must be made of the man who came to dominate working class politics in the second balamce of this century and who is considered, to this day, to huidobeo the most prominent figure produced by huivobro Chilean working class move- ment. Indeed, the balance of power between President and Congress is often used to distinguish periods in Chile’s development.


These events were the main cause of a decline in industrial and mining production during although the right-wing parties blamed frentista-inapired labour unrest and the Frontq right-wing economic-sabotage. Finallyg at times of national crisis it was the FOCh rather than the PCCh which was chosen as the vehicle for Communist declara- tions and pronouncements.

balance patriotico vicente huidobro pdf printer

This concentration of population, together with the country’s narrowness never more than one hundred miles wide and its lengthy coastline meant that central govern- ment, based in the capital city of Santiago, had good land and sea communications with other population centres which made the task of governing a relatively easy matter. Its first effort in this direc- tion was to help create a Camara del Trabajo in Iquique – a form of organisation which had been influential in the early development of the Italian trade union movement.

In the s, some pelucones, thwarted in their efforts to secure the presidency for one of their number, joined with the remnants of the pip solos “7” to patriltico the Partido Liboral PL which pressed for curbs on presidential powers and greater public liberties. Despite the high expecta- tions andq Initially at leastt the enthusiastic support of’ his Popular Front alliesq no now Chile emerved froto Aguirre Cerda’s brief administration and promises to raisethe stan- dard of living of the balabce masses were only partially and temporarily redeemed.

Certainlyp when Ravines claims that in their anxiety for a quiet life the authorities of Trabajo jettisonod the rights of workers and employers alike, he misses the mark since the trans- accionismo which he affects balace despise was precisely the central function of the DGT. The PCCh made it clear before the presidential elections that it would hot play a dominantovernment formed as the result of a frentista role in any p victory nor would it accept cabinet office and when Aguirre Cerda did invite the PCCh to serve in his government in December the party refused.

Inat the Battle of Lircay, the more conservative and centralist forces in Chilean politics, the peluconos, defeated their more liberal and democratic opponents, the pipiolos, and brought to an end a seven year period of intermittent civil war known as La Anarguia. With economic growth came social change; new elites emerged whose wealth was not based primarily on land but on banking and commerce; new middle sectors – professional men, functionaries and businessmen – appeared in response to vixente demands of an increasingly complex economy and, at the lower end of the social scale, a new urban artisan class began to form.

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Under the Popular Front strategyp workers were encouraped to conduct their disputes within the confines of the C6dlgo del Trabajo and to use the strike as the weapon of final resort – takinp care to ensure victory by the mobilisation of moral and mat- erial support for the strikers.


No other Latin American Communist Party achieved such close links with organised labour, no other party had similar electoral appeal and no other party had the degree of acceptance and respectability which the Chilean party enjoyed.

But in the eventg despite considerable support, this motion was defeated by 74 votes to 46 and a further motion affiliating the FOCh to the ISA was approved by votes to 12 with 7 abstentions. SeepalsopSalvador Valdge Cinco Aflos de Gobierno de Izquierda Santiago9l94U pplog, for a full-e–rvif right wingg explanation for the decline in agricultural production.

Worked In glass and nitrate industries and as a hatter. Government spending and not private invest- ment became the principal motor of economic growth and the government’s capacity to spend was directly tied to the prosperity of the nitrate industry which, in its turn, was subject to the vagaries of world demand. Most failed to respond to CEN demands to helo finance its activities and the new newspaper and CEN circulars were often is, nnred.

They evidently hoped that the creation of a similar party in Chile would harness the tr. Manifestul Partidului Comunist Recenzie Documents.

Aegional party conferences hold durinpindicated that the local organisations still suffered from sectarianism and bureauoriktism and that there were still too few trained cadres. It was part and parcel of the Popular Front strategy to isolate the Right by drawing all the popular forces within the Front almost regardless of their ideology andq furthermoreq communist parties in other parts of the world like China and Cuba had supported ‘popular wilitary governments’ in the stituggle against imperialism and fascisino 77 Althoughq according to one sourcey Oscar Schnake the Socialist Secretary General entered into secret nego- tiations with Ibaftez’s electoral committeep in public the PS reacted angrily to the PCChls approaches towards Ibafiez and vehemently rejected the idea that the Uni6n Socialistap an ibafiista party created by PS dissidentsq should enter the Front.

Negroes had never been imported in large numbers and the Indians, by the early nineteenth century, had been submerged by miecegena- tion, driven out of the Central Valley or exterminated. Although the circulation of these 40 Ibid. In Iquique, for example, thousands of workers gathered in the main square at week-ends to hear anarchists and socialists defend their viewpoints and, on one occasion, a debate between Catholics and socialists on the existence of God drew an audience of Luis Emilio Recabarren was born into a modest family in Valparaiso in Although Recabarren was clearly winning his strup7le against the Virla insurTents by mid-December t on Decem- ber 19thq at approximately 7 a.

Between andthe total number of legal unions grew from to and the total number of inembers: