Bibliographie. L’enfant noir Camara Laye, Cheikh Hamidou Kane, and the French African autobiography; Sebagenzi Wa Lulenga. Ideological Biographie . Ils vont des célèbres écrivains Cheikh Hamidou Kane (Sénégal) l’auteur de l’ Aventure ambiguë ou Djibril Tamsir Niane (Sénégal/Guinée). Par ces propos, Towa à la suite de Cheick Hamidou Kane, voudrait montrer que dans la Bibliographie Ouvrages de Marcien Towa Towa (Marcien). africaine, l’existiel Négro-africain, la biographie Key words: methodological pluralism.
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Introduction by Wim van Binsbergen On paradoxes about allegories of identity and alterity by Valentin Y. Lines and rhizomes — The transcontinental element in African philosophies: What we see here is an assembly of authors who in many ways qualify as a collective of African philosophers, most of them hailing from Africa, all of them living with and writing on Africa, yet in a transcontinental orientation that reminds us how long ago it is that the debate on the possibility and the existence of an African philosophy has subsided.
If Africa is anything, it is part of the world of humankind as a whole. If African thought is anything, it is both a resource for, and a celebration of, the thought of humankind as a whole. Therefore, the boundaries of historic identity and localising organisational structure that were once necessary so as to allow us to think African difference, may now increasingly become interfaces of exchange, geared to the pursuit of distant promises in space and time, and to the recognition of a common ground in what was once construed to be mutually exotic.
Transcontinental, African philosophies, historic identity, localisation, globalisation, African difference, Greek-African continuity, universalism, rationality, Afrocentrism, Socrates, sagacity, panpsychism, anthropocentrism, Teilhard de Chardin Mots-clefs: Therefore, the boundaries of historic identity and localising organisational structure that were once necessary so as to allow us to think African difference, may now increasingly become interfaces of exchange, the pursuit of distant promises in space and time, and the recognition of a common ground in what was once construed to be mutually exotic.
In this protean and kaleidoscopic process, which defies strict definition and runs in the face of established institutional and emotional interests, we rt fortunate to take our lead from a contribution by that great ambassador of African difference in universalism, Valentin Mudimbe.
In the opening contribution to this special issue, he ponders on the apparently trivial question: The smallest unit of graphic marking, the minimum way in which we can make a lasting impact on the bibliorgaphie The minimum gesture by which we can assault the sacrality of sacred books — to which we have kaen summoned not to alter even the smallest, line-like letter? The scratches that, throughout the Upper Paleolithic, appear on animal bones and that have been rather convincingly argued to represent counting systems and lunar calendars?
The boundary we draw on the ground. The sign Jesus of Nazareth drew on the ground, as his eloquent comment in a dispute on boundedness and unboundedness? That is the way it would seem to any- one: Does not the notion of line bring to biofraphie images and representations that are transparent to the point of not needing explanation? Any speaker knows that a line, real or imaginary, signifies a path, a continuous point, a moving mark. It is from such a perception, that one might invest it in expressions in which ceikh functions as both designation of a reality and its figure; thus, for instance: A metaphor, it operates in our everyday life with such efficiency that we come to forget that this simple word not only organizes our spatial perception, but determines our conceptualization of basic rapports be- tween front and back, deep and shallow, in and out, near and far, on and bibliogrphie, up and down, past and present, today and tomorrow, etc.
Looked at, from this awareness, one may then move toward what the directionality of the line im- plies, both the idea of separation and distinction of parts it creates.
Our physi- cal geography, the whole domain of our culture, including mental configurations and our relations to nature, are topographies structured by lines. It is not my intention to orient this reflection into debates brought, few decades ago, to the core of structuralism about whether binary oppositions— they are not detachable from the notion of line that defines their distance—are, or are not social constructs.
Hzmidou purpose is, from the ordinariness of lines as figures determining spaces in the practice of everyday life, to interrogate what they suppose and impose in allegories that biorgaphie us in dialogue or separate us 2 Cf.
And of course, from him kwne a post-structuralist we expect to be reminded of the separation that is not a separation but a bibliogrwphie — a trope recurring in his own work e. The latter notion has been scientifically canonised at least ever since — millennia after the rise of mathermatics as a distinct subject in Egypt and Mesopotamia — the Hellenistic Greek Euclides formalised his planimetry.
Such variegated biograohie of real or virtual intellectual connection are not always manifest, above ground, and rectilinear.
Usually they are the opposite: Although united bkographie this common theme of distant, often hidden, often vicarious, often virtual, yet unmistakable lines of connection which usually are transcontinental and transcultural, the collection that makes up the present special issue ramifies off in all directions, as befits a rhizomatic process revolving on the powers of thought and of imagination.
Let us briefly review the contributions. Here the rhizome appears to have toxic qualities: Here the transcontinental connections make Africa appear, not as a staggering drunk unable to make up his mind whether to drown himself biograaphie in the Indian or the Atlantic Ocean, but as an essentially composed and sane, once richly endowed person, determined to find conceptual solutions for the problems of meaning that beset him at present, and drawing great comfort from realising that his resources are not just local but global, and extending across all of human history.
Écrivains Africains et Identités culturelles, de Pierrette Herzberger-Fofana | Africultures
Bust considered to represent Socrates, 1st c. Alumona, engages in a far more optimistic transcontinental encounter: But it also, implicitly, shows us something else: The physionomy of the depicted man follows a convention well established in Hellenic and Hellenistic sculpture — that of the rustic Silenus, whose more overt connotations would be Asian rather than African.
However, as lies in the nature of the rhizomatic connections of thought and imagination that we are interested in here, there is much more to this than meets the entrenched scholarly eye of the classicist. And I am thinking of the Greek myth depicting two primal gods so locked in embrace that their offspring, representing creation, cannot issue from the primal womb cf.
A description of the modes of livelihood and political institutions of a Nilotic people, Oxford: Clarendon; reprint of the origi- nal edition of European representation of African non- academic modes of thought known through more or less extensive fieldwork, yielding a measure of cultural and linguistic competence typically built up in adulthood rather than as is far more standard in cultural learning from earliest infancy on.
Barry Hallen has been one of the most successful Northerners engaged in such a process, and his name 5 Scheub, Harold,A dictionary of African mythology: The mythmaker as story- teller, Oxford etc.: There is a further transcontinental con- nection here since the same myth has been recorded for various parts of Oceania — but that is regrettably beyond our present scope.
The Analytic Approach, published in However, apart from conditions created by historic accident during the ephemeral colonial period, there is no reason why the representation of African non-academic modes of thought should not be undertaken more effectively and congenially by people who from infancy have acquired the linguistic and cultural competence — including the many implicit and non-verbal elements — required for an appreciation and understanding of African life-forms and worldviews: He reminds us how Odera Oruka initially defined his own project: Would it be possible to identify persons of traditional African culture, capable of the critical, second-order type of thinking about the various problems of human life and nature; persons, that is, who subject beliefs that are tradition- ally taken for granted to independent rational re-examination and who are in- clined to accept or reject such beliefs on the authority of reason rather than on the basis of a communal or religious consensus?
For what Odera Oruka had in mind was not making the wisdom of African sages available in the time-honoured format in which they had dispensed it so far orally, and within the narrow horizon of the local communitybut the form of discursive academic text, in print, in an imported world language of North Atlantic origin, and worldwide.
Odera Oruka, ed; Sage Philosophy: ACTS Press,p. Here we have a typical paradox of transcontinental connections: With the spate of writing on orature etc. Af- rican and Anthropological Lessons towards a Philosophy of interculturality. What can we use of the North Atlantic philosophical tradition, how can we selectively deploy it to elucidate our specific problematics in Africa today, and how can we hold our own — even go beyond — in the face of this transcontinental overkill in the way of resources, prestige and authority, publication facilities, canonisation.
These are, implicitly, the considerations that appear to inform the remaining three contributions to this special issue.
This points to another, largely unexplored way which the transcontinental connection in the context of African philosophy hwmidou take: In the last decade, the discussion around ubuntu see below has been one of the view signs of such a positive South-North feed-back in philosophical matters. Another growth-point would seem to be the reflection on African paranormal and divinatory phenomena. Jacques Nanema, inspired by the development discourse that is one of the major public expressions hamicou Africa especially informing transcultural encounters of a political and economic nature, seeks the confrontation with another Northern thinker, the bibliograpihe philosopher Mounier and his humanism.
But need it lead to a situation where the African commentator seems to be almost paralysed by awe and respect? One would have wished for an affirmation of African time-honoured or recent educational practices and perspectives what about the institutions of extensive puberty training, once found over much of Africa?
It is heart-warming to see my childhood hero Teilhard acknowledged as a pioneer of ecological consciousness, and as exponent of pan-psychism, of a new anthropocentrism, and of panhuman planetisation. But again one wonders whether not more of an affirmation of African difference had been possible when mediating Teilhardian thought for an essentially Af- rican audience.
But pan-psychism certainly does, reasonably well recorded for many parts of Africa. Specifically on ubuntu, cf. A Zimbabwe indigenous political philosophy, Salis- bury [ Harare ]: Graham; Boele van Hensbroek, P. The Ubuntu Theology of Desmond Tutu.
Pilgrim Press; Bewaji, J. The rhizome of transcontinental connectivity grows, perhaps hidden, but in common ground extending across time and space to include the whole of humankind. What is a line? On paradoxes about allegories of identity and al- terity.
That is the way it would seem to anyone: It is not my intention to orient this reflection into debates brought, few decades ago, to the core of structuralism about whether binary oppositions—they are not detachable from the notion of line that defines their distance—are, or are not social constructs.
My purpose is, from the ordinariness of lines as figures determining spaces in the practice of everyday life, to interrogate what they suppose and impose in allegories that bring us in dialogue or separate us in confrontation.
I am grateful to Filip De Boeck who organized and presided the session, to E. Corinne Blalock, my assistant, for her continued help, and to Diane Ciekawy for her assistance in correcting an earlier draft.
Rather it means in some broad sense that things can be added. Price, The Future of Spacetime, Norton, Life cheats reason and reason cheats life.
Scholastic-Aristotelian phi- losophy fabricated in the interest of life, a teleologic-evolutionist sys- tem, rational in appearance, which might serve as a support for our vital longing. This philosophy … was, in its essence, merely a trick on the part of life to force reason to lend it its support.
But reason sup- ported it with such pressure that it ended by pulverizing it. To my Latin American students, inscribed bodies, who have been teaching me how to read absurd lines in compact economies of signs. Does not the notion of line hamidu to mind images and representa- tions that are transparent to the point of haamidou needing explanation?
Paradoxes about allegories of identity and alterity past and present, today and tomorrow, etc. Looked at, from this aware- ness, one may then move toward what the directionality of the line im- plies, both the idea of separation and distinction of parts it creates.
Our physical geography, the whole domain of our culture, including mental configurations and our relations to nature, are topographies structured by lines. It is not my intention to orient this reflection into debates brought, few decades ago, to the core of structuralism about whether binary oppo- sitions—they are not detachable from the notion of line that defines their distance—are, or are not social constructs.
My purpose is, from the ordi- nariness of lines as figures determining spaces in the practice of everyday life, to interrogate what they suppose and impose in allegories that bring us in dialogue or separate us in confrontation. Its English equivalent, trauma, stands for a shock initiating a lasting psychological damage that possibly can lead to a neurosis.
One would say, therefore, from the simplicity of the semantics of a line, there is not much to worry about a rendering of such a proces- sion. In effect, does not its signification belong to the banality of our daily existence, precisely the management of our activity and the stress it produces when correlated to healthy alignments? Digni- fied by the moral authority of the Dalai Lama who introduces it with a foreword, the book prescribes an agenda outlined by three bibliograpuie axes: With reference to this value, one might represent a line as a deviation bibliographiw straightness, as signifying a smooth bend, an angle deflecting a plane and reorganizing in this fashion the morphology of a figure.