FEMS Microbiology Reviews 20 () ^ Bioleaching: metal solubilization by microorganisms Klaus Bosecker * Federal Institute for Geosciences and. RRM LITERATURE REVIEW THIOBACILLUS-FERROOXIDANS THIOBACILLUS- THIOOXIDANS MICROORGANISMS BIOLEACHING METAL SOLUBILIZATION. From: Bioleaching: metal solubilization by microorganisms Figure 2 Bacterial leaching of uranium ore in shaking flasks. Extraction of uranium during leaching.

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Hungarian [27] Lacey, D.

The The adjustment of the correct pH value is a neces- authors have indications that pyrite is degraded to sary condition for the growth of the leaching bacte- sulfate via thiosulfate in a cyclic mechanism. Various other valuable met- the precious metals are then recovered from the res- als, e.

Because of Heterotrophic bacteria and fungi which require their physiological peculiarities both strains may organic supplements for growth and energy supply have some potential in bioleaching.

The commercial appli- [9] Markosyan, G. Under still able to grow on reduced inorganic sulfur com- anaerobic conditions elemental sulfur is used as an pounds using ferric iron as an alternative electron electron acceptor and is reduced to H2 S.

The same compounds Two new species of acidophilic thiobacilli have are used as energy source by Sulfobacillus thermosul- been described by Huber and Stetter [7,8]: Higher rates of aeration and a more ac- curate monitoring and control of the various param- Fig. Uranium a second look at deposits that were once considered uneconomical.

Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link. Among the fungi Asper- easier. Click here to sign up. Ex- traction of uranium during leaching with T.

Therefore, processes tested on individual types of ores cannot be transferred to other ones.

The rate of leaching also er with ammonium, phosphate and magnesium biolsaching. Open-cast mining of copper ore. On a technical scale, par- tion processes. Bioleaching has also some potential for metal recovery and detoxification of industrial waste products, sewage sludge and soil contaminated with heavy metals. Some of them be- bacteria, whether by mutation and selection or by long to the species Bacillus circulans, others are re- genetic engineering, will microodganisms results more quickly lated to Bacillus mucilaginosus [66].


Help Center Find new research papers in: Metallurgical Application of Bacterial ic manipulation of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans for biohydromet- Leaching and Related Microbiological Phenomena Murr, allurgical applications.

Handbuch der Biotechnologie, 4th edn. Phylogenetic analysis of the generated clone libraries revealed predominance of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Miceoorganisms ria and is decisive for the solubilization of metals.

In the simplest case, the percolator an increase in metal concentration in the leachate. Mineral Processing Extractive Metallurgy Rev. At that time the annual 7. Dump leaching area, covered for insulation. Particular importance must be attrib- ticularly in the case of dump or heap leaching, uted to the cycle of ferrous and ferric iron.

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A particle size of about 42 Wm good growth and high activity of solubiluzation leaching bac- is regarded as the optimum [36].

Growth, however, will only occur mobilizing bacteria [7], T. Biohydrometallurgy Norris, ferrous iron agar to determine viable numbers, and compar- ison with 14 P. Industrial waste products opment remains to be done.

Acidianus brierleyi, for- from all other thiobacilli by the fact that besides merly associated with the genus Sulfolobus [17], is a deriving energy biileaching the oxidation of reduced sulfur chemolithoautotrophic, facultatively aerobic, ex- compounds ferrous iron can be used as an electron tremely acidophilic Archaeon growing on ferrous donor.

When bac- terial leaching and solvent extraction are coupled the solvents become enriched in the aqueous phase and have to be removed before the barren solution is recirculated to the leaching operation. Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. In the absence of oxygen T. Genetic improvement of bioleaching not represent a taxonomic unit. Further development [13] Brierley, J.

Non-sulfide ores and minerals can be treated by heterotrophic bacteria and by fungi. McGraw-Hill, Ham- bacterial leaching patterns by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans on burg. So- lutions containing the mixroorganisms bacteria are injected into boreholes in the fractured orebody.


Their capacities range from several kilograms to a few tons.

From: Bioleaching: metal solubilization by microorganisms – ppt download

Indirect bacterial leaching chemical oxidation reactions into microorvanisms met- al sulfates. Bioleaching mechanisms Thiobacillus-like bacteria, so-called Th-bacteria, At the present time bioleaching processes are are moderately thermophilic bacteria and grow on based more or less exclusively on the activity of pyrite, pentlandite and chalcopyrite at temperatures T. As in the case of manganese leaching, metal solubilization may be due 2. At present bioleaching is used essentially for the recovery of copper, uranium and gold, and the main techniques employed are heap, dump and in situ leaching.

The sulfur arising simultaneously Eq. Irrigation by perforated tubes. Be- fore recirculation, the leachate may pass through an oxidation basin, in which the solubilizatio and ferric iron are regenerated.

Silicate dissolv- than conventional procedures like screening and ing bacteria have successfully been used for adaptation, and in the mean time, considerable prog- upgrading low-grade bauxite ores which contained ress has been made on the development of a genetic silica to such an extent that conventional methods system for T. Best results were achieved when oxalic portation costs for shipping the acid needed for acid and citric acid were the main components in the chemical leaching can be avoided.

Depending on their size, the columns may be made of glass, plastic, lined concrete, or steel Fig.

From: Bioleaching: metal solubilization by microorganisms

This technology level and Denison Mines have stopped production. Industrial leaching processes Fig. The procedures are operation [53,54]. During the last 25 years bioleaching of min- Tank leaching is more expensive to construct and erals has opened up new opportunities for extrac- to operate than dump, heap, or in situ leaching proc- tive metallurgy and biohydrometallurgy is now esses.