Lower elevations are generally forested by White Spruce and Subalpine Fir. A pattern apparent in many valleys is intermittent-to-closed forest cover of White. Mean annual. BOREAL CORDILLERA ECOZONE. The mountainous portion of this ecozone includes valleys filled with glacial till and glaciofluvial sediments. Cordillera/ Boreal_Cordillera_Ecozone_(CEC).

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Coastal communities like Pond Inlet, Clyde River and Qikiqtarjuaq are examples of larger communities. During the winter, the sea ice is largely continuous and land-fast. When there are many competing uses for the land, proper management and planning become crucial.

Boreal cordillera

In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Most of this ecozone is associated with the most extensive set of islands in the entire circumpolar Arctic area. Several mountain ranges run north to south and there are a number of interior plains.

This boreal plains region of Alberta is characterized by an abundance of black spruce photo by Cleve Wershler. Summers are warm to cool with long periods of daylight. The native grasses are well adapted to drought cordiillera follow the patterns of available moisture.

The ecozone is divided almost evenly between forest and nonforest land. The climate is dry and cold, with annual precipitation ranging from to mm.

Small lakes are numerous and are important for waterfowl and fish habitat.

The ecozone is the northernmost extension of the deciduous forest biome that extends throughout much of the eastern United States.

The National Ecological Framework Terrestrial Ecozones of Canada tear-out map at back divides the country into 15 terrestrial ecozones, 53 ecoprovinces, ecoregions, and more than ecodistricts Ecological Stratification Working GroupMarshall and Schut delineated on the basis of the interactions of geological, landscape, soil, vegetation, climate, wildlife, water, and human factors.


In the global circumpolar setting, this ecozone constitutes the largest arctic archipelago. Natural regions are intended to describe areas of the Earth’s surface which possess similar qualities or attributes. The Prairie grasslands are among the largest farming areas of the world.

Locally intense use of this marine ecozone by migratory birds and marine mammals occurs during the summer ice-free period. During the glacial period, much of Canada would have looked like this ecozone. Grande PrairieDawson Creek and Hinton are some of the main settlements. The Taiga Plains are located mainly on the western side of the Northwest Territories.

The bay is generally shallow, and the land is rising steadily at around 60 cm per years because of isostatic uplift Corel Professional Photos. The area is very dry. The alpine areas are home to many species specially adapted to the mountain terrain. The spruce component, retained for diversity and regeneration, is harvested about 20 years later. Saskatchewan is heavily dependent on river flows and precipitation for agricultural production photo by Menno Fieguth.

More than 70 per cent of the land area is forested. Thick-billed murresblack guillemots and Iceland gulls are common sea birds. The three zones contain the Canadian Rockies. Once heavily forested, the Mixedwood Plains supported a greater diversity of trees and plants than any other part of Canada. Where the soil material is derived from shales or sandstones, the cover and types of species are better.

Ecozones represent large ecosystems and are useful for gaining a perspective on the nation as a whole.

Natural Regions

They tend to be restricted to warmer spots and southern latitudes. Summers are short with prolonged periods of daylight.

Precipitation ranges from more than mm per year in the north to less than mm in the south. Fishing, transportation, and tourism are other economic activities.


The Pinhorn Grazing Reserve contains mixed grassland vegetation and spear grass. The Southern Arctic ecozone is where many of the more typical Arctic features begin to respond to the warmer temperatures and extended growing seasons.

The resulting soils are frozen year-round except for thin surface layers that thaw in the brief summer period. The mixed forest area included species such as eastern white pine, eastern hemlock, yellow birch, red pine, sugar maple, red oak and basswood.

Large sections of the area’s most spectacular mountain scenery are preserved in local national parks such as BanffJasper and Wells Gray. The many lakes and rivers in this ecozone are important for fisheries, recreation and hydroelectric power.

Natural Regions | The Canadian Encyclopedia

It takes special measures to build on the taiga because of permafrost. Vegetation is easily destroyed by vehicles and can take decades to grow back. Above the treeline, at elevations higher than 1 to 1 metres, alpine weather is the norm. When present, trees are of low stature. Arctic char is particularly important.

Winters are long and cold, with short daylight hours. Because most of Devon Island is a plateau, it is a barren landscape, dominated by frost-shattered rocks Corel Professional Photos. The ground has continuous permafrost and thaws only to shallow depths in the summer.

Soils are usually forest soils Brunisols and Luvisolsbut much of the landscape has long since been converted to agricultural and urban uses.

Mammals more typical of the inland include woodland caribou, moose, black bear, marten, arctic fox and fisher.