हिंदी कविता जब कोई रूठ जाये रंग जीवन का उड़ा आँखों से सपना बह गया खो गई सारी खुशियाँ बस खोखला शरीर रह. Maine Gandhi Vadh Kyu Kiya (Hindi Translation of Why I Assassinated Gandhi) ( Hindi) Paperback – Author interviews, book reviews, editors picks, and more. 11 सितंबर Labels: book by nathuram godse, download gandhi vadh kyon hindi, gandhi vadh, gandhi vadh kyon, nathuram godse, गाँधी वध क्यों.
This book is written by “Nathuram V Godse”, everyone is aware of this name. This books publisher is “SatyaDharm Publication, Delhi. I want also get this book but i did’t get this book anywhere in india and book shops,publication.
I didn’t waste single minute to buy after seeing this book. In India I think you will find this type of book very raraly. This books publisher is “SatyaDharm Publication, Delhi”.
गाँधी वध क्यों | Gandhi Vadh Kyon Hindi Book PDF Free Download
There are lots of books written on partition. This book comprise of content from these book and individual. In book nathuram had mentioned that Gandi was hindu antagonistic. Partition is the disicion in which many hindu as well as muslim was killed.
Some lines from Godse. After that i was in reconciling. I feel that gandhi jee had take up much pain for tha country and i really respect him for this service to country.
But Gandhi jee didn’t have right to partition of motherland by fooling conuntries people. I don’t want any type of favor. I also don’t want that some one beg a favor for me.
And Junstice Khosle wrote: Many iof them killed thhem to save their dignity. Thousand of people were killed everyday from both of the religion with this dicision.
This book includes lots many quotes from judges and other people who are directly or indirectly involving this. In this book writer very clearly explain the Kasmir issue which is still hot. People of kashmir is still live in a fear.
Contains of book are like this 1. Refugee and Gandhi Jee 3. Sardar Patel and 55 Crore 4.
Forsight of Gadhi’s murder 5. He was saying that it is not at all related to Savarkar. Even Savarkar don’t know that Godse is planning to doing it. With that there are lots of fact you will find in this book.
Gandhi Vadh Aur Main by Gopal Godse Ban | Indian Media, Politics, News and Views
I am still middle of the book. I will post gook bolg if i find more interesting thing in this book. Posted by Virus at 9: Once I done, will let you know View my complete profile.
Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read.
Want to Read saving…. Want to Read Currently Reading Read.
Silappatikaram – Wikipedia
Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem?
Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. S Rameshan Nair Translator.
Kindle Editionpages. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.
Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia.
Chilappathikaram : ഇളങ്കോവടികള് : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive
Riyaz Usman rated it really liked it Oct 01, chikappathikaram Promod rated it really liked it Malzyalam 27, Nidhin Karthikeyan rated it did not like it Dec 27, Raj vaz is currently reading it Aug 06, Jaya A G is currently reading it Oct 06, Rithin Robert marked it as to-read Mar 07, Sanjai Kumar is currently chilappathikarsm it Mar 29, Madhavan Kutty is currently reading it Aug 01, Morils Lijoy added it Oct 23, Rajeev P marked it as to-read Oct 25, Reema CP added it Nov 26, Raju marked it as to-read Nov 29, Ranjith K marked it as to-read Dec 12, There are no discussion topics on this book yet.
Books by Ilango Adigal.
No trivia or quizzes yet. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account.
Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight. Clifford Geertz. The Raid. Early in April of , my wife and I arrived, malarial and diffident, in a Balinese village. “Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight” is one of Clifford Geertz’s most influential articles which illustrates not only the meaning of a given. clifford geertz: “deep play: notes on the balinese cockfight” summary and review to start form the bottom line, clifford geertz’s essential notion expressed in.
Self-mockery seems to be an essential ingredient for making an anthropological classic. But I think the real appeal of this article is the way the reader is drawn into the process of anthropological discovery. The article starts with a heart-pounding chase. Cockfights are illegal and the sudden appearance of the police during one of the first fights Geertz and his wife witnessed sent everyone scurrying home:.
On the established anthropological principle, When in Rome, my wife and I decided, only slightly less instantaneously than everyone else, that the thing to do was run too. We ran down the main village street, northward, away from where we were living, for we were on that side of the ring. About half-way down another fugitive ducked suddenly into a compound-his own, it turned out-and we, seeing nothing ahead of us but rice fields, open country, and a very high volcano, followed him.
As the three of us came tumbling into the courtyard, his wife, who had apparently been through this sort of thing before, whipped out a table, a tablecloth, three chairs, and three cups of tea, and we all, without any explicit communication whatsoever, sat down, commenced to sip tea, and sought to compose ourselves.
This story serves two purposes: The first is to draw the audience into the society along with the anthropologist. Not only was he there, but he was embraced by the members of the society who loved his clumsy ways. William Roseberry thinks so.
To ask of any cultural text, be it a cockfight or a folktale, who is talking, who is being talked to, what is being talked about, and what form of action is being called for, is to move cultural analysis to a new level that renders the old antinomies of materialism and idealism irrelevant.
In some ways Geertz is one of the most well known anthropologists outside of the discipline, but my sense is that his influence within the discipline itself has waned. Notes on the Balinese Cockfight. Balinese Cockfights and the Seduction of Anthropology.
Social Research 49 Like a lot of people I read the Balinese cockfight article in my anthropological youth and I remember enjoying it although the Person, Time, and Conduct essay in that same volume was the fhe that really captured my attention.
Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight – Wikipedia
To me most of the articles in Understanding Culture share a common feature: Geertz notices, articulates, and illustrates a conceptual problem then ends with no how-to program for solving the problem he raises. He persuades me that thick description is better than the thin explanations that anthropologist typically provide but offers no criteria for deciding when one description is better than another.
To learn that Balinese lose themselves in cockfights, which are, at least from one perspective, exemplars of selves they want to be, victors in short, bloody, violent conflicts that elevate status may contribute to our understanding of why Bali, now normally seen as a beautiful tourist trap inhabited by lovely people with an extraordinary level of self-control, was, shortly after WWII, the scene of massacres that killed I need to check the numbers around 80, people.
Comparisons with, for example, Cambodia leap to mind, together with the memory that amok was imported into English from Malay. That what the cockfight has to say about Bali is not altogether without perception and the disquiet it expresses about the general pattern of Balinese life is not wholly without reason is attested by the fact [what a marvellous example of passive voice and absence of the author] that in two weeks of Decemberduring the upheavals following the unsuccessful coup in Djakarta, between forty and eighty thousand Balinese in a population of about two million were killed, largely by one another—the worst outburst in the country.
I find it particularly troubling that Roseberry, ostensibly a political economist, also manages to elide this political context of the contemporary cockfights in favour of some of the economic aspects of their history which I grant is important, but no more important than the contemporary context. His discussion of the role of sexual [gender? One thing that I always wonder about the cockfight essay is what Balinese people always think about it.
Has an Indonesian scholar written a reaction to the piece? Rola brings up an interesting point. My earlier comment got cut short because I had to leave suddenly, but I had wanted to point out something else. For Geertz, culture is mainly psychological and personal. The idea of culture as a set of symbols that we share back and forth seems almost custom-designed to avoid the kinds of political economic analysis Rola and myself would like to see.
The only place power comes into play in this formulation is in who has access to particular symbols. To come round full circle, it may be worth remembering the material and political conditions of fieldwork in the s, 60s and 70s. The native is not the only one affected by this context.
Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight
Think Cold War, Vietnam War, anti-colonial struggles, rampant tne sometimes justified suspicion that anthropologists were CIA agents up to God knows what.
In Taiwan, when Ruth and I were doing fieldwork xockfightthe first thing we did when arriving in Puli was report to the foreign affairs policeman who seemed, in fact, a very pleasant person…but anyway. It was, moreover, still possible for people who talked too openly about certain topics to get a knock on cocktight door in the middle of the night.
Doing fieldwork in Taiwan in those years meant, among other things, being constantly aware that certain topics were off-limits. Much as I respect oneman, this is just plain wrong. In The Interpretation of Cultures Geertz explicitly contrasts his position that symbols are found in public behavior with public meanings to psychological approaches that equate culture with mental models Ward Goodenough or subconscious emotions Culture and Personality studies influenced by Freudthus making culture invisible or a theoretical artifact created by the observer.
Thw he talks about culture as text, the text is fully material, like words printed in a book. The problem is to learn how to read them, not to decipher something else going on behind the scenes. I suppose Geertz would admit that the interpretive process is heavily determined by all sort of outside factors, but he rarely makes this a factor in his writing.
That makes a lot more sense, and, in my case, explains why, when I went looking for how to produce a thick description, I turned to Victor Turner. Is any of what Roseberry is saying new?
It seems important to remember that Geertz was himself formed under Talcott Parsons, and that Interpretation of Culture was the big break with that tradition Religion of Java being pretty different.
Sure, we can find plenty of things wrong with it now, but it remains pretty incredible: We may have moved away from the type of culturalism that ignores the political and economic context, but it seems pretty banal to point this out, at least in American anthropology French anthropology being another story.
During the s, commentaries on the Balinese cockfight essay have become quite common, developing, for cpckfight most part, in apparent independence…. At the time the original version of this chapter was published, inthis academic industry was undeveloped. Unlike osme of the more recent commentaries, this essay is directed at a cockight political understanding of culture.
ANd, of course the fact that we can still develop a pretty hearty discussion suggests that the issues raised by Geertz around the time I was born are still far from totally settled. Cockfights are illegal and the sudden appearance of the police during one of the first fights Geertz and nottes wife witnessed sent everyone scurrying home: More Geertz online at HyperGeertz. Works cited in this post: Sennett — The Craftsman in links, no particular order.
In , Koebner coined the term epidermolysis bullosa hereditaria. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Brocq and Hallopeau. Inherited epidermolysis bullosa (EB) encompasses a number of disorders characterized Epidermolysis bullosa hereditaria; Hereditary epidermolysis bullosa. Inherited epidermolysis bullosa (EB) encompasses a number of disorders Disease name: epidermolysis bullosa EB hereditaria.
These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term “Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita. Search Bing for all related images. Started inthis collection now contains interlinked topic pages divided into a tree of 31 specialty books and chapters. Content is updated monthly with systematic literature reviews and conferences. Although access to this website is not restricted, the information found here is intended for use by medical providers.
Patients should address specific medical concerns with their physicians. Related Bing Images Extra: Epidemiology Mean age of onset: Pathophysiology Autoimmune Subepidermal Blister ing condition. Signs Trauma prone areas more commonly affected Tense Blister s and erosions over extensor surfaces Knuckles Dorsal hands Elbow s Knee s Ankle s Mucosal involvement common Oral, nasal, and esophageal mucosa Conjunctiva l mucosa.
Labs Histology Subepidermal Blister with inflammatory infiltrate Immunofluorescence IgG deposits at dermal-epidermal junction. Complications Scarring skin lesions with associated milia. Course Chronic waxing and waning course. Related links to external sites from Bing. Epidermolysis bullosa is inherited and usually starts at birth.
Patients with epidermolysis bullosa may be at herrditaria risk of squamous cell cancer of the skin. Definition NCI An autosomal recessive inherited skin disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding keratins 5 and 14, collagen VII or laminin 5.
It is characterized by skin fragility and the formation of blisters. The blisters may epidermoilsis large and ulcerated, resulting in skin infections and loss of body fluids.
Definition MSH Group of genetically determined disorders characterized by the blistering of skin and mucosae. There are four major forms: Each of the latter three has several varieties. Definition CSP yereditaria chronic noninflammatory skin disease manifested by vesicles, large bullae blistersbulloosa skin erosions which often result from trauma.
Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita C Definition NCI A chronic autoimmune inflammatory disorder characterized by the formation of subepidermal blisters in the skin and the mucous membranes.
Related Topics in VesiculoBullous Disorders. Dermatology – VesiculoBullous Disorders Pages.
Back Links pages that link to this page. Hypertrichosis Pemphigoid Cicatricial Pemphigoid Blister. Search other sites for ‘Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita’. A group of chronic skin disorders in which fluid-filled blisters form on the skin and mucosa the moist, inner lining of some organs and body cavities.
An autosomal recessive inherited skin disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding keratins 5 and 14, herediatria VII or laminin 5. Group of genetically determined disorders characterized by the blistering of skin and mucosae.
Epidermolysis bullosaBulozna epidermoliza. A chronic autoimmune inflammatory disorder characterized by the formation of subepidermal blisters in the skin and the mucous membranes.
Form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized heredktaria trauma-induced, subepidermal blistering with no family history of the disease. Disease or Syndrome T Erworbene Epidermolysis bullosaEpidermolysis bullosa acquisitaEpidermolysis bullosa, erworbene. Epidermolysis bullosa acquisitaErvervet epidermolysis bullosa.
EVAGRIO PONTICO, Trattato pratico sulla vita monastica 3: SChr , ; trad. it. a cura di L. Dattrino, Roma , La conoscenza della Trinità supera. TEDattrino Lorenzo, EVAGRIO Pontico, Trattato pratico sulla vita monastica : TPatr R , Citta Nuova. p; Bunge Gabriel, Akedia. La medesima sorte e toccata ad un terzo scritto di Evagrio pontico: U trattato De Pratico e da quello Sui diversi spiriti della malvagità, qui Diego Marchini (La.
I’ll be really very grateful. Cento capitoli sulla vita spirituale – Evagrio Pontico Avendo quindi diviso il trattato sulla preghiera evario capitoli, te lo invio come alimento Vita, opere e scritti di Evagrio Pontico – PadridellaChiesa.
Cento capitoli sulla pratjco spirituale: Cento pdatico sulla vita spirituale di Evagrio Pontico, G. Creator and the Platonic Tradition, Atlanta Georgia Umana, divina Malinconia Alessandro Grossato – Academia. Adam speaks Danish, the Creator addresses him in Swedish Olender, E9 G78 L’epistula fidei di Evagrio Pontico: Temi, contesti, sviluppi; Atti Un anno di Libri – Edizioni Qiqajon by Monastero di … ; Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online.
EVAGRIO PONTICO OBRAS PDF
Rent and save from the world’s largest eBookstore. Read, highlight, and take notes, across web, tablet, and phone.
Trattato teorico e pratico – Georges Henriot If you find our site useful, please chip in. This book may have occasional imperfections such as missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Leonardo – Trattato della pittura, page 53b You may view this DjVu file here online.
EVAGRIO PONTICO OBRAS PDF
If the document is multi-page you may use the controls on the right of the image to change pages. Cento capitoli sulla vita spirituale Cento capitoli sulla vita spirituale libro Evagrio Pontico Bunge G. La preghiera – PDF – docplayer.
Antirrhetikos di … ; Compra il libro Contro i pensieri malvagi. Antirrhetikos di Evagrio Pontico; lo trovi in offerta a prezzi scontati su Giuntialpunto. Era nato attorno pontici a Ibora, nel Ponto, in una famiglia di alti notabili, e questo gli permise di ricevere una formazione completa e raffinata. Ibera, nel Ponto, – m. Asceta, fu seguace di Clemente e di Origene.
Evagrio Pontico – Wikipedia ; Wikiquote contiene citazioni di o su Evagrio Pontico Collegamenti esterni [ modifica modifica wikitesto ] Opera Omnia dal Migne Patrologia Graeca con indici analiticisu documentacatholicaomnia. Cento capitoli sulla vita spirituale Cento capitoli sulla vita spirituale di Evagrio Pontico. Acquista a prezzo scontato Trattato pratico. Cento capitoli sulla vita spirituale di Evagrio Pontico, Qiqajon su Sanpaolostore. Thank you very much.
evagrio pontico trattato pratico pdf creator – PDF Files
Great thanks in advance! Help me to find this evagrio pontico trattato pratico pdf creator. Who could help me? Who is online Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 9 guests.
Pachakam offers healthy & delicious Naadan that will add some zing and Soaked Rice flakes (Avil Nanachathu) is a traditional Kerala snack item made with. Kerala Style Kaalan is a traditional styled ethnic dish prepared from vegetables like yam and raw plantain. Kaalan is usually served during. Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots and learn more about Pachakam – Kerala Recipes. Download Pachakam – Kerala.
Mutton Pepper gravy is a delicious Indian recipe served as a gravy for tiffins.
This is pachaam perfect side dish for, rotis, chappathis even with rice. This is a simple curry where in the boiled tapioca is sauted with spices and onions.
Prawn masala ada is a rice pancake stuffed with a spiced mixture of prawns and steamed usually in banana leaf placed in a steamer. Indian style Ginger Chicken is an easy to make sizzling spicy chicken recipe.
This is a very famous chicken preparation. Ginger not only adds a wonderful taste to this dish but also ksrala the dish more digestible. Soaked Rice flakes Avil Nanachathu is a traditional Kerala snack item made with beaten rice flakes aval coconut and jaggery. This is the best evening time for kids and adults.
It is healthy too. Varutha Ulli Chammanthi Podi is an unique recipe from the state of Kerala. This is the best side dish ith boiled rice. This spicy dish is prepared with onions and other masalas and spices. Dried Tuna fish is called Maasu. Maasu is mostly available in Lakshadweep. Maasu Podichath is a traditional dish of Lakshadweep people.
Maasu podichath is easy to make and good in taste. Vellarikka Chakka Kuru Curry is a delicious vegetarian side dish served with hot rice for noon day meals.
The traditional styled Vellarikka Chakka Kuru Curry is a nutritious combo of jackfruit seeds and cucumber. Vellarikka Chakka Kuru Curry is unique and special with sliced vellarikka and jack fruit seeds cooked with an aromatic coconut mixture and seasoned with fried shallots.
Vellarikka and jackfruit seeds are nutritious rich in vital nutrients required for body.
Pachakam – Kerala Recipes on the App Store
Vellarikka Chakka Kuru Curry is one of the easiest dishes to prepare. You can explore a well detailed Vellarikka Chakka Kuru Curry here. Pachhakam fried egg is a cooked dish commonly made using a fresh kegala egg, fried whole with minimal accompaniment.
Boiled eggs fried with hot and spicy masala tastes awesome. Easy Beef Biriyani is a very tasty Kerala dish cooked with readily available herbs and spices. Cooked spicy beef blended with fragrant rice is one of the most aromatic whole meals one will ever dream to savour.
What makes Easy Beef Biriyani unique is the style of cooking, no hectic and time consuming dum technique required. Easy Beef Biriyani dish comes in handy when unexpected guests arrive and you are obliged to treat them with something Special.
Medium sliced pachaksm pieces are combined with jerala paste, garam masala, other required ingredients and cooked in a pressure cooker. Fry basmati rice and keep aside. Stir in lightly fried rice, add salt and cook for 5 minutes.
The rich, enticing flavour of Easy Beef Biriyani will be already filling the room. Avoli plichathu is the most sought after Kerala delicacy. Pwchakam is a particular variety of fish which is mostly available in all districts of Kerala. This fish fry is prepared with the special marination of fish.
Wheat Unniyappam is a tasty tea time snack that can be easily prepared at home. Soft Unniyappams are a vogue in Kerala.
Kerala Style Kaalan
Very popular in Kerala, Wheat Unniyappam is a snack you will relish to the core, loved by young and old alike. Wheat Unniyappam is unique and special with wheat jaggery mixture poured into hot moulds and deep fried in oil. Wheat Unniyappam is a nutritious snack with the goodness of bananas. You can explore a well detailed Wheat Unniyappam snack here. Nizana Shammas is a hosewife who has lots of interest n cooking. She is an expert in providing various traditional recipes.
.:Welcome to Pachakam:. | Kerala Naadan Curries | Pinterest | Curry, Kerala and Welcome
Renukadevi Kumanan is a well versed person pacuakam providing varities of South Indian recipes and also some modern recipes. She used to try varities of recipes from different cuisines. Filter More from this results: Fried Ginger Garlic Pathiri Fried ginger garlic pathiri is a crispy tasty pathiri which you can give with any curry.
Prawns Masala Ada Prawn masala ada is a rice pancake stuffed with a spiced mixture of prawns and steamed usually in banana leaf placed in a steamer. Maasu Podichath Dried Tuna fish is called Maasu.
Egg Porichadhu A fried egg is a cooked dish commonly made using a fresh hen’s egg, fried whole with minimal accompaniment. Avoli Porichathu Avoli plichathu is the most sought after Kerala delicacy. Nizana Shammas Nizana Shammas is a hosewife who has lots of interest n krrala.
Recipes of Nizana Shammas. Renukadevi Kumanan Renukadevi Kumanan is a well versed person in pachaiam varities of South Indian recipes and also some modern recipes. Recipes of Renukadevi Kumanan. Give Feedback Contact Support.
STORY IN EBOOK DOWNLOAD · EJERCICIOS DE ESPEJOS CONCAVOS Y CONVEXOS RESUELTOS EPUB · HEAD FIRST OOAD EBOOK. lentes concavos y convexos fisica pdf. optica fisica espejos y lentes fisica pdf. ejercicios resueltos de lentes convergentes y divergentes pdf. Algunos ejemplos de cuerpos elásticos 30n: resortes, ligas, bandas de hule, pelotas .. Formación de meniscos cóncavos al introducir tubos delgados en agua. En este caso se forma un menisco convexo (figura ).
Sign up with Facebook Sign up with Twitter. I don’t have a Facebook or a Twitter account. Research and publish the best content. No tag on any scoop yet. Scooped by laptavt onto laptavt. Headquarters of various international organizations pdf. Static GK Resultos for All. Sign up to comment. Your new post is loading Fracture mechanics michael janssen pdf printer. Concwvos and nodes at the crack tip are perturbed to simulate a virtual crack extension .
The change in specimen, where the crack length recorded by an image converter camera was Michael G. Vassilaros, 1 Richard A. The right of Michael F.
Ashby to be identified as the author of this work has been. Used together, Materials Selection in Mechanical Design and CES EduPack ”strength” cpncavos tension means the brittle fracture strength; in compression it is exchange constants for family cars and it is the driver for the development of.
P Graft Substitute, Mechanism and Function. Surgical In the driver’s seat: Nowa heloiza rousseau pdf. Nowa Heloiza Jana Ejerciicios Rousseau. Studyum literackie napisal Maurycy Mann. Listy dwojga Pelny tytul powiesci Jana Jakuba Rousseau brzmi: Ksiazka zostalaOpisuje nieszczesliwa milosc skromnego nauczyciela eapejos jego arystokratycznej uczennicy.
Do Julii czesc 1. Trzeba uciekac od Pani, czuje to dobrze: Pobierz i przeczytaj fragment ebooka za darmo. Ksiazka ukazala sie w roku i w ciagu czterdziestu lat.
Welcome page facebook template pdf.
Explore these free high-converting landing page templates brought to you by Welcome people to your list and let them know that they’re in for a great ride. By creating a Concabos landing page that tracks them with the Facebook pixel and facebook business page template sketch freebie download free, sneak peek get a first look at facebooks facebook template 49 free word pdf ocncavos ppt format download.
Fill Facebook Template For Character, download blank or editable online. These templates are the best option for Let the students know your concavoz beforehand; for example, I may tell them or write on the board that they must include: Picture or icon for character.
Basically, it’s a worksheet available in text and PDF formats, allowing 4 Dec Free Facebook Page Template to create a high-converting welcome page.
CHECHIYUDE KOODE ORU RATHRI 2 EPUB DOWNLOAD
Several people have asked us to share a template that could function as a Facebook Welcome Page using the FanGate feature. It’s a PDF file. In Word format, the form is editable, while a PDF version allows prints for wo. Ulkus adalah pdf file. Hidayahulkus diabetik adalah salah satu bentuk komplikasi kronik diabetes Klasifikasi ulkus diabetik menurut University of Texas Classification System.
Dexa Media, jurnal kedokteran dan farmasi, no. Ulkus diabetes adalah suatu luka terbuka pada lapisan kulit sampai ke dalam Menurut The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease. Ulkus kaki diabetik adalah luka yang dialami oleh penderita diabetes termasuk klasifikasi Kings College Hospital, University of Texas klasifikasi, klasifikasi 17 Mar PDF Pasien Infeksi ulkus kaki diabetik memerlukan penggunaan antibiotik, antibiotik yang sering of an bio cs is necessary to avoid an bio c resistance.
Data inklusi sampel yang dipilih adalah pasien ulkus. Characteristic of diabetic ulcer, Diabetes Mellitus, neuropathy, foot care penelitian adalah menilai karakteristik ulkus pada penderita DM di dua rumah sakit. Harga Diri Pasien Kanker Payudara di. Ulkus diabetik merupakan salah satu bentuk dari komplikasi kronik penyakit diabetes. Ulkus kaki diabetik adalah kaki pada pasien. Ulkus adalah hilangnya seluruh ketebalan epitel sehingga jaringan ikat bahwa ulkus traumatik merupakan lesi ulkus rongga mulut yang muncul dalam.
Andantino suzuki book 1 violin pdf. Violin Music- Twinkle Quartet: Here is a sample from the book Twinkle: Andantino – Suzuki Violin Method – free sheet music for violin. Learn this song on Jellynote with our interactive sheet music and tabs. Suzuki Violin Great site for helping child learn Suzuki books. Violin with Piano Accompaniments. Water heater installation pdf. Generalized instructions and procedures cannot anticipate all situations.
For this reason installation of an electrical resistance water heater. An installation the installation of this water heater, visit our website at: Please attach these instructions next to the water heater.
EJERCICIOS DE ESPEJOS CONCAVOS Y CONVEXOS RESUELTOS EBOOK
Improper installation, adjustment recommended this water heater be installed and serviced by a plumbing professional. A Spanish language version of these instructions is available by Read this manual and the labels on the water heater before you install, operate, or service it.
If you have diffi culty following the direcons, or aren’t sure you can 2. You have just purchased one of the finest water heaters on the eejercicios today! This installation, operation and instruction manual will Save this Manual for Future Resjeltos.
With Installation Instructions for the Installer. This water With Installation Instructions for the Installer. This water heater is not suitable.
Chiesa di dio pdf.
Da 01 a 62 Chiesa di Dio 95seme di pace e di bonta. Dio ti guida come un padre tu ritrovi la vita con lui. Rendigli grazie, sii fedele finche il suo regno ti aprira.
Dio ti nutre col suo cibo. Santa Chiesa Di Dio by vnocerino. Documents Similar To E. Elgar – Santa Chiesa Di Dio. Monastero di Bose – Gesu al tempio – 28 dicembre. Tuo e il regno. Chiesa che vivi nella storia.
Chiesa di Dio, ejercicjos in festa, alleluia, alleluia! Chiesa di Dio, popolo in festa, canta di gioia, il Signore e con te!
Headquarters of various international org
Dio ti ha scelto, Dio ti chiama, nel suo Chiesa di Dio. Villeneuve – Testo di E. Elaborazione polifonica per Coro a 4 voci miste e Organo di Giovanni Geraci. Nuova bibbia di gerusalemme pdf. Ti piacerebbe avere la Parola di Dio sul tuo cellulare? La Bibbia e la raccolta della straordinaria Parola di Dio. I suoi insegnamenti, i suoi messaggi positivi e iLa Bibbia di Gerusalemme. Antico e Nuovo Testamento nella traduzione “canonica” Bibbia di Gerusalemme.
La Bibbia di Gerusalemme in formato pdf I files Word sono zippati compressiper cui hai bisogno di un programma come Winzip, All’interno di ogni libro della Bibbia sono stati messi dei collegamenti ad ogni capitolo e versetto La Bibbia, tutta intera, in formato PDF 8 MB circa. La Bibbia di Gerusalemme. Pdf printer macbook compatible. PDF Printer Lite latest version: An virtual pdf printer that prints any documents to pdf Upgrade to Pro?
One of the will be sufficient. Additionally, Why buy Acrobat Pro when you can just use any application on the Mac? Compatible with android phones. The printer can be added by using the “Add Printer”24 Oct It is important to note that when you print to this printer, it converts your document to an Adobe PDF file on Mac instead of printing sheets of I am used to creating separations in Illlustrator on a Windows PC.
I switched to MAC, and I cannot figure out how to print a PDF so that I can Mac OS X has a native pdf output already, any use of a pdf printer would be but although it installed first time, i dont think this is compatible with Yosemite beta.
Get the guaranteed best price on Studio Monitor Volume Controllers like the Bose Panaray System Digital Controller II at Musician’s Friend. Get a low price and. The Panaray System Digital Controller II utilizes digital signal processing (DSP) architecture to provide active equalization and signal processing for Bose. Welcome to the Bose Pro Community. This is your source for L1®, F1, S1, ToneMatch information, announcements, tips, and suggestions.
The spinal cord integrates and relays somatosensory input, leading to complex motor responses. Research over the past couple of decades has identified transcription factor networks that function during development to define and instruct the generation of diverse neuronal populations within the spinal cord.
A number of studies have now started to connect these developmentally defined populations with their roles in somatosensory bos. Here, we review our current understanding of how neuronal diversity in the dorsal spinal cord is generated and we discuss the logic underlying bosse these neurons form the basis of somatosensory circuits.
These senses are largely relayed and processed in the bosw spinal cord. Primary sensory neuronal axons from the periphery enter the dorsal spinal cord through the dorsal root where they synapse on projection neurons, local circuit interneurons, or even directly onto motor neurons, providing the first level of circuit integration and processing for somatosensory information.
Broadly, the circuitry is spatially organized with nociceptive and thermosensitive afferents targeting the psdcc dorsal laminae, cutaneous afferents targeting more ventral dorsal laminae, and proprioceptive afferents targeting cells more ventrally in the intermediate and ventral spinal cord Fig. Spinal cord neurons use excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmitters, combined with multiple neuropeptides, to transmit and modulate these signals.
How the diversity of neurons in the dorsal spinal cord configure somatosensory circuits and how these neurons function to integrate and relay somatosensory information is beginning to be uncovered. Development of the spinal cord.
During development, an invagination of the neural plate closes to form the neural psdd, which will become the central nervous system. The most caudal parts of the neural tube will become the spinal cord. Rexed laminae I-X in the adult spinal cord are determined by cytoarchitectonic parameters. Commonly used anatomical names for Rexed laminae regions are described: Clarke’s column, or the dorsal osdc of Clarke CCresides in the medial aspect of lamina VII mainly in the thoracic spinal cord.
The spinal cord is generated from the developing vertebrate neural tube Fig. Rostral parts of the neural tube develop into the brain while caudal parts become the spinal cord. These studies have shown that cells within bosd caudal neural tube differentiate into diverse populations of neurons Alaynick et al. Although bosee cell types extend along the rostral-caudal axis, as demonstrated for motor neurons that reside in different columnar motor pools, dorsal-ventral patterning is a major determinant of cell identity in the developing spinal cord.
Indeed, cross sections through the neural tube demonstrate the existence of discrete domains of combinatorial transcription factor TF bode that define particular cell types Fig.
Summary of the transcription factors that set up spinal cord neuronal diversity. The key transcription factors TFs that coordinate neuronal diversity in the developing spinal cord are shown, highlighting those that are expressed in the various progenitor domains dP1-dP6, p0-p3 and pMN in the proliferating ventricular zone of the developing spinal cord and those that define mature neuronal populations dI, V and MN and their subsets in the differentiating mantle zone.
TFs containing a homeodomain are indicated in blue text. Msx1Msx2 Timmer ppsdc al. Several dynamic processes have been shown to influence the number ;sdc type of neurons that form during the early stages of spinal cord neurogenesis and neuronal specification.
i These processes include interplay between signaling pathways gose TF function, regulation of the timing of neurogenesis, mechanisms of cross-repression between TFs and the expression of TF-driven gene programs that are specific to neuronal identity.
While these developmental mechanisms that generate specific cell types in the caudal neural tube are still under investigation, an open question is: With the advent of genetic techniques in mice to trace the lineage of various progenitor populations into adulthood, the field is now beginning to understand how neurons born in different progenitor domains give rise to the spinal interneurons that contribute to different aspects of somatosensation.
The caudal neural tube is thus emerging as an important model system with which to understand not only how progenitor domains are established during development, but also if there is some logic tying the development of a neuron to its function. In this review, we first provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms that specify cell fate and generate neuronal diversity in the developing spinal cord.
We then explore how different developmental populations produce subsets of neurons with particular somatosensory functions.
We do not cover ventral spinal cord development and diversity as this topic has been reviewed elsewhere Alaynick et al. As the caudal neural tube develops into the spinal cord, cells within progenitor domains in the ventricular zone Fig. Examinations of the combinatorial expression of multiple families of TFs, largely homeodomain HD and basic helix-loop-helix bHLH factors, have led to the description of 11 early-born [embryonic day E E Six of these dorsal interneuronsdI are found in the dorsal neural tube, and the remaining five V0-V3 and MN are found in the ventral neural tube Fig.
These defined populations can be further divided into subtypes using criteria such as axonal projections, resulting location in the spinal cord ik neuropeptide expression. For example, the dI1 population can be split into two populations that are distinguished by their spatial location and axonal projections: These 13 main bse designations are central to understanding how TF expression is patterned in response to morphogens and how TFs psdcc neuronal identity.
Importantly, most of the TFs that mark these populations are required within the lineages where they are expressed. Although the TFs that define spinal cord neuronal populations are often depicted in a single static figure as in Fig. Thus, just because a TF bbose as a lineage marker at iu stage does not mean that it serves that function throughout the development of the lineage. HD factors are, therefore, particularly bode as markers for defining neuronal populations in the dorsal spinal cord Fig.
While transcription factors have been shown to define discrete domains during spinal cord development, the molecular markers that define a particular Rexed lamina are less bise, in part because particular laminae may have different sensory afferent terminations with several different neuronal cell types. Nonetheless, recent studies have been bkse to molecularly refine subpopulations within a given laminae.
These molecular designations are summarized in the above image. Expression patterns were determined psfc antibody staining capitalized protein symbolmRNA detection italicized gene symbol or genetically modified mice green boxes.
PSDC-II – Support Resources | Bose Pro Audio | Bose Pro
TRPM8 Bautista et al. Dynamic expression of transcription factors in the developing spinal cord. The expression of transcription factors TFs in the developing neural tube padc highly dynamic. Eventually, sustained expression of ASCL1 leads to neuronal differentiation. Multiple signaling pathways are active in the developing neural tube prior to the emergence of the TF-based patterning discussed bise.
As the role of morphogens and their signaling pathways have been recently reviewed Briscoe and Small, ; Gouti et al. Cross-repression between TFs in the developing neural tube.
Furthermore, cross-repressive activities between individual TFs, both direct and indirect, play an important role in setting up boundaries between interneuron domains. During patterning of the dorsal-ventral axis of the spinal cord, SHH produced at the floor plate is instrumental for the formation of ventral cell type identities and it acts by activating or repressing the expression of TFs largely HD TFs in a concentration-dependent manner Briscoe et al.
Thus, the gradient of SHH from the floor plate sets up the initial pattern of TF expression that is later refined through cross-regulatory mechanisms between TFs Ericson et al. These signals are produced largely in the roof plate, involve multiple family members and regulate proliferation as well as specification of the progenitors Chesnutt et al.
Alterations to BMP levels, for example through mutations or ablation of the roof plate, demonstrate that specification of the dorsal dI1-dI3 termed class A populations are dependent on these signals, whereas the more intermediate dI4-dI6 class B populations form independent of BMP signaling Fig. The transcriptional output from these signals results in different combinations of HD-containing homeobox HOX TFs being expressed in progenitors and postmitotic neurons. For example, Hox4-Hox8 are expressed at the cervical and brachial levels, while Hox8-Hox9 are expressed in thoracic regions and HoxHox13 in lumbar regions.
The combinations of HOX genes induced have also been shown to pattern motor columns in the ventral spinal cord, such that motor neurons at limb levels are different from those at intercostal or abdominal levels. The mechanisms that regulate rostral-caudal identity in the dorsal spinal cord projection neurons and interneurons are less well understood, although HOX genes are likely players there as well. Although the signaling molecules mentioned above are the primary ones influencing the patterning of neurons generated along the dorsal-ventral and rostral-caudal axes, they are not the only players.
Notably, the responsiveness of progenitors to these patterning signals changes over time, probably as a result of the TFs themselves altering components in the signaling pathways to enhance or attenuate the signals Nishi et al.
What are the mechanisms that signal progenitor cells to exit the cell cycle and begin the process of neurogenesis? Together, these factors are key for influencing the number of neurons generated.
In general, a high level of Notch signaling maintains cell proliferation, whereas high proneural bHLH levels drive differentiation of that cell. There are many complexities in the Notch pathway, including extensive post-translational modifications, localization of components in the endoplasmic reticulum ER versus the cell surface and crucial protease cleavage steps see review by Kopan and Ilagan,but the core of the canonical signaling pathway is as follows.
NICD forms a transcriptional activator complex that, among other things, activates transcription of the HES1 transcriptional repressor. Because high levels of the proneural bHLH factors drive neuronal differentiation, repression of these factors biases cells to the progenitor stage.
Thus, one might expect that some proneural bHLH activity in surrounding cells is needed to keep Notch signaling active in the progenitor cell. A model emerges whereby low levels of proneural bHLH activity are in a balance with active Notch signaling to maintain progenitor cells Castro et al.
When an imbalance allows elevated levels of proneural bHLH expression, the progenitor differentiates. Because of feedback regulation of HES1, cross-regulatory relationships as stated above and instability of the factors involved, the levels of the TFs and Notch ligands oscillate. Indeed, an emerging model is the oscillation model for maintaining progenitors Kageyama et al.
In this model, progenitors are maintained in a proliferative state. When expression of the neural bHLH factors is elevated and sustained, the progenitors undergo cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation. For details on this Notch signaling oscillation-based model and a description of the live cell imaging experiments that support the model, see recent reviews by Imayoshi et al.
Repressing inappropriate gene expression programs in a lineage is just as crucial to specifying appropriate cell fate as inducing the proper cell type-specific genes. Indeed, cross-repression between TFs has emerged as a major principle in setting up boundaries that delineate either progenitor domains or their resulting neurons Fig.
This concept was first described in the ventral neural tube where neighboring progenitors repressed each others’ expression of class I or class II HD TFs to generate discrete progenitor boundaries Briscoe et al. In the dorsal neural tube, cross-repression is also evident and has been shown to occur between bHLH factors. How can these bHLH factors, which are activators of transcription, repress fate in neighboring cells?
Furthermore, PRDM13 may function through switching ASCL1 from an activator of Tlx3 expression to a repressor as a means to shut down gene programs for alternative fates within a differentiating neuron. As another example, PRDM12 was shown to be a factor that supports the V1 lineage by repressing V0 genes in the progenitors of these neurons Thelie et al. Until recently, the cross-repressive mechanisms elucidated in the developing neural tube have been limited to gene programs in neighboring progenitor populations.
However, unbiased approaches for identifying specific targets of TFs, such as RNA-seq coupled with ChIP-seq, are beginning to uncover broader programs of repression than previously appreciated.
Bose ControlSpace SP Newest Model of Panaray Systems Digital Controllers PSDC | #
This emphasizes the concept that there is broad transcriptional activation throughout the neural tube, possibly involving SOXB1 factors Bylund et al. Additionally, these repressor networks target multiple SHH signaling components, providing negative feedback to ongoing SHH signaling, emphasizing the dynamic relationship between TFs and signaling pathways Nishi et al. Lastly, cross-repression between TFs is not just seen in setting up progenitor domain boundaries, but is also a mechanism used in early postmitotic populations.
Thus, TLX3 provides a switch that specifies the excitatory neuronal phenotype while repressing inhibitory neuronal programs in these postmitotic populations Cheng et al. Extrinsic signaling can also influence the levels of these TFs.
Thus, cross-repression between TFs that specify neuronal subtypes in progenitors and postmitotic neurons, which can be influenced by activity-dependent processes, is a key mechanism in generating neuronal diversity and ensuring definitive cell identities in the spinal cord. As mentioned above, bHLH and HD TFs have been used extensively to define and couple progenitor populations to their terminal neuronal populations, but less is known about the identity of the direct downstream targets of these TFs that could connect them to terminal differentiation processes such as axon guidance and neurotransmitter or neuropeptide fate Avraham et al.
In addition, hexameric complexes containing the HD factors ISL1 and LHX3 in the ventral neural tube have been shown to directly regulate a battery of cholinergic pathway genes, such as those encoding acetylcholine synthesizing enzymes and transporters in developing motor neurons Cho et al. Thus, terminal neuronal phenotypes can be directly regulated by sustained expression of HD factors in mature neurons. Given the transient nature of expression of the bHLH regulators, as opposed to the more sustained expression of some HD TFs, it is possible that bHLH TFs act to set up chromatin accessibility for later persistently expressed TFs that maintain the expression of cell type-specific genes Borromeo et al.
In summary, the past two decades of research have yielded multiple fundamental principles that guide the development of neuronal diversity in the neural tube.
The use of TFs as markers to define progenitor and neuronal populations has been essential for uncovering strategies that direct neuronal diversity in the developing neural tube.
Download Baguier MATY apk and all version history for Android. Enjoy millions of the latest Android apps, games, music, movies, TV, books, magazines . To determine your ring size, use the virtual ring sizer below. Don’t forget to check first that the indicator is really measuring 10 cm on your screen. Baguier Virtuel. Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Baguier MATY. Download Baguier MATY and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad.
On some models, may be sent after three failed login attempts. This object returns a comma-delimited list of the Strapping Indexes of all units present in the strapping group. For example, if units 0, 1, 5, and 7 are present, this value will be ‘0,1,5,7’. For units that do not support strapping, a Strapping Index of ‘0’ is assumed.
In most cases this list will only contain one entry. However, some units have a ‘strapping’ feature which allow units to be daisy-chained together such that all of them can be accessed through the SNMP interface of the master.
If strapping is enabled, the strapping indexes of the units that can be accessed will be listed in the unitsPresent object.
If units do not support ‘strapping’, this will always be ‘0’. This could be from either a real-time clock in which case it is likely writeable or from a time server via NTP probably read-only.
Functionality is as follows: Groups include breakers, outlet sections, and user-defined groups. Once the command is issued, outlets will turn Off. Baugier in seconds until the outlet Sequence Off command is issued Cancel a pending unit-level Off command When read, returns -1 if no command is pending, or the current downcount in seconds of a vrtuel command.
Once the command is issued, outlets will turn On according to their outletControlSequenceDelay value. Time in seconds until the outlet Sequence On command is issued Cancel a pending unit-level On command When read, returns -1 if no command is pending, or the current downcount in seconds of a pending command. Its value ranges from 1 to inputCount. The number of entries is given by inputVoltageCount.
Its value ranges from 1 to inputVoltageCount. A negative value indicates that this object is not available. The number of entries is given by inputCurrentCount. Its value ranges from 1 to inputCurrentCount. A negative value indicates that the hardware current capacity is unknown.
Units are in milli, for example a crest factor of 1. The number virtue, entries is given by inputPowerCount. Its value ranges from 1 to inputPowerCount. This object is writable so that it can be reset to 0.
When it is written to, the inputWhTimer will be reset updated as well. Virtueel are in thousandths, for example a power factor of 0. The number of entries is given by groupCount. Its value ranges from 1 to groupCount.
This value may be written on the face of the unit. Indicates whether a breaker vitruel turned off or on. For example, this table will link to all of the outlets that are contained in a particular group. Its value ranges from 1 to groupChildCount. There can be only virtkel voltage measurement for each group.
There can be only one current virtule for each group. A negative value indicates that the hardware current capacity is unknown it will always be unknown for custom groups. There can baguierr only one power measurement for each group. Virrtuel it is written to, the inputWhTotalTimer will be reset to 0 as well.
A value of ‘mixed’ means that that the outlets within the group have differing states. Once the command is issued, the outlets in the group will turn Off immediately. Time in seconds until the group command baguifr issued Cancel a pending group-level Off command When read, returns -1 if no command is pending, or the current downcount in seconds of a pending command.
Once the command is issued, the outlets in the group will turn On immediately. Cancel a pending group-level On command When read, returns -1 if no command is pending, or the current downcount in seconds of a pending command. For outlets that are On prior to the Reboot command, they will switch Off immediately when the command is issued, remain Off for outletControlRebootOffTime seconds, and then turn back On. For outlets that are Off prior to the Reboot command, they will turn On after a delay of outletControlRebootOffTime seconds from when the command is issued.
Time in seconds until the Reboot command is issued Cancel a pending group-level Reboot command When read, returns -1 if no command is pending, or the current downcount in seconds of a pending command. The number of entries is given by outletCount. For virutel, this table will link to all of the groups that have this outlet as a child.
Its value ranges from 1 to outletParentCount. Once the command is issued, the outlet will turn Off immediately.
Time in seconds until the outlet command is issued Cancel a pending outlet Off command When read, returns -1 if no command is pending, or the current downcount in seconds of a pending command. Once the command is issued, the outlet will turn On immediately.
Cancel a pending outlet On command When read, returns -1 if no command is pending, or the current downcount in seconds of a pending command. For outlets that are On prior to this Reboot command, they will switch Off immediately when the command is issued, remain Off for outletControlRebootOffTime seconds, and then turn back On.
Cancel a pending outlet Reboot command When read, returns -1 if no command is pending, or the current downcount in seconds of a pending command. This delay is also used as a power-on delay. Set to -1 to exclude this outlet from Global Sequence On commands. An application which need to shutoff properly an outlet will read this parameter first then write it to the command outletControlOffCmd. The number of entries is given by temperatureCount. Its value ranges from 1 to temperatureCount. Divide by ten to get degrees.
Units are tenths of a degree. The number of entries is given by humidityCount. Its value ranges from 1 to humidityCount. The number of entries is given by contactCount.
Its value ranges from 1 to contactCount. Will not be returned if the contact sensor is internal to the ePDU, in that case only contactState should be vrtuel.
Bague Amour Je t’aime, or blanc et diamants
If an option is not listed, then the ePDU likely does not support that notification. November 19, Sent whenever a user logs in. Sent whenever a user logs out.
Sent when someone attempts to log in and fails. Sent whenever an ePDU finishes booting up hard or soft reboot. Sent whenever an input voltage threshold status changes. Sent whenever an input current threshold status changes. Sent whenever the input frequency status changes. Sent whenever a group voltage threshold status changes. Sent whenever a group current threshold status changes.
Sent whenever a group status changes to indicate whether the circuit breaker is on or off. Sent whenever virutel outlet voltage threshold status changes. Baguoer whenever an outlet current threshold status changes. Sent whenever a temperature threshold status changes.
Sent whenever a humidity threshold status changes. Sent whenever a contact sensor state changes. Sent whenever the environment probe status changes. Sent whenever the PDU communication status changes. Sent whenever the PDU internal status changes. Sent whenever the trap test feature bwguier used by the communication card. Sent whenever the strapping communication status changes. Each unit is identified by bzguier Strapping Index.
hand lenses | English to French | Geology
A list of units. An entry for a PDU. For units that support ‘strapping’ functionality, this will be a unique value for each unit.
International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score calculator . of the pediatric versus adult IKDC Subjective Knee Evaluation Form in adolescents. IKDC SUBJECTIVE KNEE EVALUATION FORM. Your Full Name______________________________________________________. Today’s Date. Date of completion. IKDC SUBJECTIVE KNEE EVALUATION FORM . Thank you very much for completing all the questions in this questionnaire.
Patient-reported measures of knee function are important for the comprehensive assessment of rheumatology conditions in both clinical and research contexts. To merit inclusion in this review, measures of knee function were required to be patient reported and assess aspects considered important by adult patients with knee problems such as injury or osteoarthritis OA.
Therefore, measures used in rheumatology, orthopedics, ikdd sports medicine were considered. Dimensions deemed to be important to patients included pain, function, quality of life, and activity level.
To identify instruments fulfilling these criteria, we utilized published reviews of knee instruments 1knee OA instruments 2and measures for use in patellofemoral arthroplasty 3.
Based on these reviews, as well as extensive searches of more recent literature, we included the following 9 patient-reported outcomes: Although the WOMAC can be applied to the hip and knee, this study contains data only applicable to the knee.
Measures assessing activity level are listed separately. The number of psychometric reports concerning each instrument ranges from 2— A higher number of reports indicates a higher degree of certainty in interpretation of the psychometric properties. Psychometric properties were based on data provided in Tables 1 and 2, and interpreted using standardized guidelines.
Measures were deemed to have face validity if the reviewers considered that the items adequately reflected the measured construct, or if studies reported that expert panels had made a similar assessment 8.
Construct validity was considered adequate if expected correlations were found with existing measures that assess similar convergent construct validity and dissimilar divergent construct validity constructs 7. As there is no gold standard measure of patient-reported outcome, criterion validity is not applicable to this review. In this context, the minimum clinically important difference is the amount of change of a patient-reported outcome that represents a meaningful change to the patient, while the patient-acceptable symptom state is the least abnormal function score at which patients would consider themselves having acceptable function To detect improvement or deterioration in symptoms, function, and sports activities due to knee impairment Patients with a variety of knee conditions, including ligament injuries, meniscal injuries, articular cartilage lesions, and patellofemoral pain The IKDC was formed in to develop a standardized international documentation system for knee conditions.
It has undergone subsequent minor revisions since its publication in The items now have the allocated scores next to each possible response. The minimum score for each item has also been changed so that it is now 0, not 1. The scoring of the numerical rating scales for items 2 and 3 has been reversed so that 0 represents the highest level of symptoms and 10 represents the lowest level of symptoms, which is in line with the scoring of the rest of the items.
Response options vary for each item. Not specified for items 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, and 9; 4 weeks for items 2, 4, and 6.
Function prior to knee injury for item 10a and current function for 10b. Multiple web sites have published versions of the form. The form has not been validated for administration by interview, either in person or via telephone. The response to each item is scored using an ordinal method i. The most recent version has assigned scores for each possible response printed on the questionnajre.
Scores for each item are summed to give a total score excluding item 10a. An online scoring sheet is available www. The item regarding knee function prior to knee injury is not included in the total score. The revised scoring method states that, in cases where patients have up to 2 missing values i.
It uses simple language that is suitable for patients. Approximately 5 minutes to score. Training is not necessary. Manual scoring can be performed easily using the scoring instructions supplied with the questionnaire. Cross-cultural adaptations have been conducted for the Brazilian 16Chinese 17Dutch 18Italian 15dorm Thai 19 translations. Item-response theory was used to create the scoring system.
Measures of Knee Function
Patients were not involved in development; rather, items were selected by the IKDC, a committee of international orthopedic surgeons Studies consistently report no floor or ceiling effects i. Internal consistency is adequate for patients with ikdx injuries and mixed knee pathologies Table 1. Test—retest reliability is adequate for groups of patients with knee injuries and mixed pathologies and individuals with knee injuries.
However, test—retest reliability is slightly below adequate for individuals who fall into a broader category of knee pathologies. The minimal detectable change has been reported to be between 8. The domains covered by the IKDC appear to represent elements that are likely to be important to patients.
However, the lack of patient contribution to the selection and revision of items in the IKDC means that content validity cannot necessarily be assumed. There are consistent reports of high convergent and divergent construct validity, with the IKDC more strongly correlated with the Short Form 36 SF physical subscales and component summary than with the mental subscales and component summary 1116 — 1820 In patients undergoing surgical treatment of meniscal injury, the IKDC shows large effect sizes at 1 year Table 2.
For patients who have had surgical intervention for cartilage injury, the IKDC shows moderate effect sizes at 6 months and large effect sizes at 1 year.
Large effect sizes have been reported from 6—28 months following various surgical procedures conducted in a mixed cohort of knee pathologies. The minimum clinically important difference has been reported to questionnair 6. The patient-acceptable symptom state has not forj determined. At face value, the domains covered by the IKDC appear to represent elements that are likely to be important to patients.
It shows adequate internal consistency and has no floor or ceiling effects across mixed groups of patients with knee conditions. The IKDC has been shown to be responsive to change following surgical interventions, highlighting its usefulness in this patient population.
Despite demonstrating face validity, the lack of patient contribution to item selection indicates that content validity cannot necessarily be assumed.
The relatively long recall period associated with 3 of the items may be a problem for some patients. The use of 1 aggregate score to represent symptoms, activities, and function may mask deficits in 1 domain. Psychometric testing is lacking for patients with knee osteoarthritis as an isolated group, as well as responsiveness following non-surgical management, highlighting areas for quesstionnaire studies.
Measures of Knee Function
The IKDC involves minimal administrative and respondent burden, and can be easily scored in the clinic using the online scoring sheet. Test—retest reliability for idc with various knee pathologies suggests that the IKDC may demonstrate inadequate reliability for the evaluation of individual patients. Psychometric evaluation supports the use of the IKDC in research for a variety of knee conditions.
As some versions of the IKDC published online contain subtle differences in the wording of instructions and items, researchers should ensure that they utilize the version published as a component of the IKDC Knee Forms to ensure that findings of psychometric properties still apply, and that comparisons can be made with previous studies. Administrative and respondent burden would not limit research use, although researchers should be diligent in checking for missing data.
Young and middle-aged people with posttraumatic osteoarthritis OAas well as those with injuries that may lead to posttraumatic OA e. Questionnire original KOOS remains unchanged, although a short form for function has been developed.
All items are rated on a 5-point Likert scale 0—4specific to each item. Not defined for QOL subscale. The KOOS and associated documentation are freely available at www. The KOOS has not been validated for use during an in-person or telephone interview. Scoring sheets manual and computer spreadsheets are provided on the web site.
Each item is scored from 0—4. The 5 dimensions are scored separately as the sum of all qjestionnaire items. A total score has not been validated and is not recommended. If a mark is placed outside a box, the closest box ofrm chosen. If 2 boxes i,dc marked, that which indicates more severe problems is chosen. One or 2 missing values within a questionnaier are substituted with the average value for that subscale.
Population-based normative data are available, stratified by age and sex The KOOS takes 10 minutes to complete It uses simple language questoonnaire similar 1-word responses for each item. The items largely reflect signs and symptoms of their knee condition and how this affects everyday tasks, so it is not considered that they would have an emotional impact on the individual.
The knee-related QOL subscale could be considered the most forn sensitive component, as it requires the individual to reflect on how their knee affects their QOL.
Approximately 5 minutes to score, using the scoring spreadsheet.
International Knee Documentation Comitee – Orthopaedic Scores
Training is not necessary, as the components of the KOOS and the scoring instructions are self-explanatory. Cross-cultural adaptations have been conducted for the Swedish 2728Chinese 29Dutch 30French 31Persian 32Portuguese 33Russian Golubev; www.
Items were selected based on: Item-response theory was not used in the development of KOOS or for item selection Reported rates of missing data are low: Studies consistently report no or acceptable floor or ceiling effects in knee injury cohorts 273236 and in patients with mild or moderate knee Quesionnaire 282931 In knee OA, pain and ADL subscales have adequate test—retest data, while for the other subscales, reports indicate both lower and adequate test—retest reliability.
Across the 5 subscales, the minimal detectable change ranges from 6—12 for knee injuries and from The standard error of the measure is qustionnaire to be lower for knee injuries than for OA. As well as exhibiting face validity, the iikdc involvement of patients with knee conditions in the development of the KOOS facilitates content validity 25 A more recent study reported that quetionnaire KOOS subscales had questioonnaire dimensionality The KOOS appears to be responsive to change in patients with a variety of conditions that have been treated with nonsurgical and surgical interventions Table 2.
In patients who have undergone partial meniscectomy 3 months previously, large effect sizes are seen on all but the ADL subscale. Large effect sizes are seen in all subscales 6 months after ACL reconstruction. Large effect sizes are consistently reported on all subscales 3—12 months after TKR.
Privacy & Cookies Policy
Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. These cookies do not store any personal information.