UNIT I THE MICROPROCESSOR. Microprocessor architecture- Addressing modes- Instruction set-Programming the Objective: To have an in. CS / CS42 / EC / CS / Micro Processors and Micro Controllers Complete Notes CSE,IT 4th Semester regulation EC Microprocessor and Microcontroller Lecture Notes All 5 Units – Free notes for Anna university 4TH sem Subject CS MICROPROCESSORS AND.

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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Microprocessors and Micro controllers Two Marks with answers. It is a program controlled semiconductor device ICwhich fetches, decode and executes instructions. What is a bus? Bus is a group of conducting lines that carries data, address and control signals.

Define bit, byte and word. A digit of the binary number or code is called bit. Also, the bit is the fundamental storage unit of computer memory. And bit binary number or code is called word. MPU is a device or group of devices that can communicate with peripherals, providing timing signals, direct data flow, and microprocesor computing tasks as specified by the instructions in memory. State the relation between the number of address pins and physical memory space.

The size of the binary number used to address the memory decides the physical memory space. If a microprocessor has n-address pins then it can directly address 2n memory locations. What are the limitations of microprocessor when compared with MPU?

The limitations of MPU are: The buses need to be demultiplexed. Why data bus is bi-directional?

Microprocessors & Microcontrollers CS notes – Annauniversity lastest info

The microprocessor has to fetch read the data from memory or input device for processing and after processing, it has to store write the data to memory or output device. Hence data bus is bi- directional. Why address bus is unidirectional? It is an output signal from the processor.

Hence address bus is unidirectional. The ALU is the unit that performs the arithmetic or logical operations. Apart from processing the data, the CPU controls the entire system functioning. Usually a microprocessor will be the CPU of a system and it is called the brain of the computer.

What is tri- state logic? In tri-state logic, three logic levels are used and they are High, Low, and High impedance state. The High and Low are normal logic levels and high impedance state is electrical open circuit condition.


Why tri state logic is needed in microprocessor system? In microprocessor system all devices are connected to a common bus. But communication takes place between the master microprocessor and one slave peripheral at any time instant.

During this time instant, all other devices should be isolated from the bus. Therefore, normally all the slaves peripherals will remain in high impedance state in electrical isolation the master will Prepared by A. When the slave is selected, it comes to normal logic and it communicates with master. What is the function of microprocessor in a system?

The microprocessor is the master in the system, which controls all the activity of the system. It issues address and control signals and fetches the instruction and data from memory.

Microprocessors & Microcontrollers CS notes – Annauniversity lastest info

Then it executes the instruction to take appropriate action. Give the basic blocks of microprocessor. The basic blocks of a microprocessor are ALU, an array of registers and a control unit.

List out the signals of the microprocessor. The signals can be classified into six groups: Give the classifications of computers. Microcontrolled computers can be classified into micro, mini, and large computers.


What is a microcomputer? The computing system designed using a microprocessor as its CPU is called microcomputer. Give the uses of mini computers. Mini computers are used for business data processing, industrial control and scientific approach. Give the advantages of micrlprocessor based system.

The microprocessor-based system offers high speed, intelligence, automation, flexibility, compactness and flexibility. Give the limitations of microprocessor-based system. Microprocessor based system has limitation on size of data, less execution speed, limited address space, does not support floating point operations. Intel is a 8-bit microprocessor. Explain the difference between a microprocessor and microcomputer. The term microcomputer refers to the whole system, whereas the microprocessor is the Microprlcessor of the system.

What are the drawbacks of first generation computers? The first generation computers are fabricated using PMOS technology and it has the drawbacks like slow speed, provides low output currents and was not compatible with TTL logic levels.

List the components of microprocessor- based single board microcomputer system.

The largest and most powerful computers are called mainframes. What is super computer? The computer built using very high speed devices or devices with very low switching speeds and can execute instructions at very high speeds are called supercomputers. The speed of the super computers are measured in MIPS Millions of instructions microprocwssor second or Mega flops millions of floating point operations per micropocessor.


List the applications of microcomputer. What are the various units in the architecture? Arithmetic and Logic unit ALU.

Timing and Control Circuitry. List the registers used in microprocessorr It has eight addressable 8 bit registers: The registers can be classified as: What are general purpose registers?

HL register pair also functions as data pointer or memory pointer. HL registers are also called scratch pad registers, Prepared by Cs22552.

What are Temporary Registers? What is a Special Purpose Register? It is a tri-state 8 bit reg. What is a Flag Register? In which 5 of the bits carry significant info in form of flags. Parity flag and 5. What is sign Flag? After the execution of ALU operations if bit D7 of the result is 1, the sign flag is set. If D7 is 1, the number will be viewed as a negative number. If D7 is 0, the number will be viewed as a positive flag. What is Zero Flag?

The Zero flag sets if micropocessor result of operation in ALU is 0 and flag resets id result is non 0. The Zero flag is also set if a certain register content becomes zero following an increment ahd Decrement operation of the register.

What is AC Flag? This flag is set if there is overflow of Bit 3 i. This flag is used for BCD operation. What is Parity Flag?

After an ALU operation if the result has a even number of ones i. If the parity is odd flag is reset. What is Carry Flag? This microorocessor is set if there microprocwssor an overflow out of Bit 7. The carry flag also serves as a borrow flag for subtraction. What is Instruction register? What is Program Counter? As mentioned earlier, Microprocessor fetches the instruction from memory and executes them sequentially. Is Placed in the PC.