– An online study & reference for reserchers, students in botany with full reference on research institutes and scientific. Division Equisetophyta. Stanley L. Welsh. Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum and Department of Botany and Range Science, Brigham Young. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; and Higgins, Larry C. ( ) “Division Equisetophyta,” Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs: Vol. 9, Article 7.
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Glaucocystophyceae Glaucocystis Cyanophora Gloeochaete. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Equisetopsida. Sphenophytes bear cones technically strobilising. Equisetopsidaor Sphenopsidais a class of vascular plants with a fossil record going back to the Devonian. When ranked as a class, the group has been termed the Equisetopsida  or Sphenopsida.
Recent phylogenetic analysis has produced evidence that this group of plants belongs firmly within the fern clade of vascular plants. American Journal of Botany. This contrasts with the seed plants, which grow from an apical meristem – i. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Articles with ‘species’ microformats All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from July Commons category link is on Wikidata.
The extant horsetails are homosporousbut extinct heterosporous species such as Calamostachys casheana appear in the fossil record. Morphology of vascular plants Lower Groups. Developmental morphology and fuzziness of organ divizion.
Charophytes non-basal Charophyceae Coleochaetophyceae Zygnematophyceae Mesotaeniaceae. International Journal of Plant Sciences. All extant species of Equisetum are herbaceous, and have lost the ability to produce secondary growth. See also the list of plant orders. The biology and evolution of fossil plants.
Paleobotany sivision the evolution of plants 2nd ed.
Equisetopsida – Wikipedia
Views Read Edit View history. Sphenophyllales Archaeocalamitaceae Calamitaceae, A. This page was last edited on 28 Novemberat The extant horsetails represent a tiny fraction of Sphenophyte diversity in the past.
Morphology of Plants and Fungi 5th ed. Eequisetophyta Equisetales existed alongside the Sphenophyllalesbut diversified as that group disappeared into extinction, gradually dwindling in diversity to today’s single genus Equisetum. Plant systematics, a phylogenetic approach. The origin of the land flora, a theory based upon the facts of alternation.
The underground parts of the plants consist of jointed rhizomesfrom which roots and aerial axes emerge. A recent study by Elgorriaga et al. The organisms first appear in the fossil record during the late Devonian,  a time when land plants were undergoing a rapid diversification, with roots, seeds and leaves having only just evolved.
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Charophytes basal Streptofilum Klebsormidiophyceae. The spores bear characteristic elatersdistinctive spring-like attachments which are hygroscopic: According to that study, the age of the crown group of Equisetum dates at least to the Early Cretaceous, and most probably up to the Jurassic. Similar spaces, the vallecular canals are formed in the cortex.
There were three orders of Equisetopsid; the Pseudobornialeswhich first appeared in the late Devonian. Archived from the original PDF on In the only extant genus Equisetumthese are small leaves microphylls with a singular vascular trace, fused into a sheath at each stem node. When recognized as a separate division, the literature uses many possible names, including Arthrophyta,  Calamophyta, Sphenophyta,   or Equisetophyta.
At the junction “node”, see diagram between each segment is a whorl of leaves. In extinct groups, further protection was afforded to the spores by the presence of whorls of bracts – big pointed microphylls protruding from the cone.
The Equisetopsida were formerly regarded as a separate division of spore plants and also called EquisetophytaArthrophytaCalamophyta or Sphenophyta ; today they have been recognized as rather close relatives of the typical ferns Pteridopsida and form a specialized lineage of the Pteridophyta. Cyanidiophyceae Porphyridiophyceae Compsopogonophyceae Stylonematophyceae Rhodellophyceae Bangiophyceae Florideophyceae.
Charophyceae Coleochaetophyceae Zygnematophyceae Mesotaeniaceae.