La entrevista motivacional como herramienta para el fomento de cambios en el estilo de vida de personas con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles sergio. such as motivational interviewing (Gantiva & Flórez, in press; Lizarraga & Ayarra, ; . Entrevista motivacional en consumidores excesivos de alcohol: . Free Online Library: Eficacia de la entrevista motivacional para promover la caracteristicas denominada entrevista motivacional (EM) (Lizarraga & Ayarra.

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Fear as motivator fear as inhibitor: In the theoretical frame of protection motivation Rogers,this secondary appraisal process is called coping appraisal. Bandura argues for the preeminence of self-efficacy expectations in the control that the person exerts over her own actions, and for this reason these are the expectations that, in his view, prevail as determining factors of the agency a person exerts on her activity in general.

As can be anticipated, people tend to be more active and exert more control initiatives in situations in which they consider the outcomes to be determined by their own actions, than when they perceive them as unchangeable in a fatalistic manner e. Field theory in social science: These are not, however, the only two dual processes parallelly occurring in a CS ; from other viewpoints, other simultaneous processes coexist as well which, together with the tradition of the concept in the literature, contribute to the justification of the name assigned to the proposed conceptual model.

General and Applied80 1, Pt. Universidad Nacional de Colombia Carrera 30 N. Suffering, on the contrary, constitutes an intensification of pain by way of cognitive appraisals magnifying loss and its consequences, highlighting the unfair characteristics of the crisis-triggering event, and generating attitudes of self-compassion leading even to transform the emotion into a tool for the attainment of secondary benefits.

The chronology of the events influences considerably the commitment a person has to the particular event occurring in a CS.

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In a CSthe triggering event has already occurred and, for this reason, temporal incertitude might be more related to the threat of new events, as in the case of an earthquake which might be followed by aftershocks. Both of these processes are necessary in the course of coping with a CS as they lead to necessary results for the attainment of personal adaptation in the post-crisis.

The highest levels of active involvement, leading the person to commit to and initiate the implementation of positive actions, can be expected in those cases on which high expectations of response efficacy and self-efficacy exist; on the contrary, the lowest levels of activity, with a predominant role of passive resignation and apathy, can be expected when there are low efficacy and self-efficacy expectations Bandura, Stress, appraisal and coping.

Four different aspects in the analysis of secondary appraisal need to be differentiated, which have been the subject of study within cognitive theories of expectancy-value and social learning:. This is the process that determines the cognitive essence and the importance of feedback loops between appraisal and the emotional pain response see Figure 1which provide the person with the elements of required information that will enable her to adopt some coping strategy following a course of control of pain, control of harm, or both, and to develop future expectations of adaptation.


This feedback assumes a more evident and objective manifestation, no longer anticipatory, when a consequence of adaptation is produced which has retroactive implications by way of reappraisal loops which modify the original primary and secondary appraisals.

University of Chicago Press. The clarity of the solution is a property referring to incertitude, as it alludes to the need that a person will purport true intentions, both in terms of her reinforcement-outcome expectations referring to the efficacy of action, and in terms of her self-efficacy lizxrraga, regardless of the objective ambiguity the situation entails in itself.

Fear lizrraga and persuasion: In this case, the clarity that aversive feelings are contingent to waking up or to the aforementioned thoughts, determines that these two stimuli can become a warning signaling a possible action to be performed to prevent the onset of the experienced distress. In the perception of these stimuli different factors are important: Implications for effective public health campaigns.

El tratamiento de las experiencias de crisis: An important fact is that a critical event modifies the sensitivity of the person to other facts which, without the presence of a CSmight have a completely different meaning.

Some factors, both personal and situational, influence the determination of the development of primary and secondary appraisal, and also of reappraisal; among the personal factors, Lazarus and Folkman b have proposed commitment and beliefs; among situational factors, novelty, predictability, and event incertitude, as well as temporal factors, are particularly important.

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A total solution to the dieter’s dilemma. In motvacional section, we ebtrevista analyze a fundamental aspect of a CSunderstood as a state of great psycho-biological motivacioonal, in which emotional experience plays an intermediate role, which follows cognitive appraisal and antecedes coping entrevvista a cyclic process directed by successive reappraisals. Functionally, objective harm and aversion inherent to the set of CS triggering stimuli act in the manner of a punishment, which facilitates the person’s eventually interpreting them as such, and her engaging in speculations about which behaviors her own and those of others have produced the supposed punishment, with the subsequent emotional consequences of self-blaming or blaming others.

The label of emotional pain addressed to the subjective experience or feeling suffered in a CS emphasizes the harmful role of stimuli that usually trigger a crisis more than the isolated nature of the experienced emotion, in a process in which the experienced distress becomes an initiating source of defensive reactions configuring the process of pain control and of protective reactions configuring the process of harm control.

The factor ruling the emotional predominance in one or the other sense e.

L’ENTREVISTA MOTIVACIONAL by Claudia Garcia Sola on Prezi Next

Our aim here is merely to anticipate that the motivational formulation, prior to BMIis grounded in Riso’s proposal of cognitive formulation by levels This distinction between reinforcement expectations and outcome expectations acquires additional importance in a CSin lizarrafa a critical happening significantly alters the valence of a particular outcome, which in turn alters the significance a person will attribute to the relations between reinforcement and outcome.

The conceptual psychological model of a motivational type here proposed to account for this psychological characterization of crises, from which further considerations for intervention will be abstracted, has been called dual parallel processing in crisis situations DPP-CS.


Dual Parallel Process in Crisis Situations: Entrevista motivacional en consumidores excesivos de alcohol: Coping with a chronic event that has originated a crisis can become a challenge for the person, similar to the challenge of dealing with chronic physical pain, with the production of emotions more akin to those produced by the interpretation of challenge that favors the onset of instrumental situation management reactions, than to those produced by the interpretation of threat, which favors the onset of anxiety emotional reactions.

If it is about the anxiety generated by the threat of losing a valuable item in the case of failure to pay a debt, the proximity of foreclosure or the presence of the collector would be the event signaling the probability of experiencing the concrete harmful situation, and leads to predict more exactly a possibility of efficacious coping with its consequences.

Psychological Review92 A CS is a state of great psychobiological alteration, of varying duration and stages, subsequent to the reception of a signal announcing the event of a significant loss and the danger of a deepening of the harm that has occurred. This occurs when transforming the objective perception of the pain generated by the damage -which allows for options of personal management with or without therapeutic support- changing it into a subjective perception of intense suffering.

This change can be conceptualized as an important restructuring of the frame of physiological, psychological, and social needs that motivate a person’s actions, and it is an essential element to differentiate a CS from other situations of severe stress that do not represent a crisis as properly defined.

These are very diverse beliefs, some very general, which can encompass all aspects of a person’s life, and others more lizaeraga and restricted to those aspects related to the CS. The chronology of events. These are situational characteristics that mediate the degree of threat a situation represents to the person, regarding the interpretations she might make. Entrevista motivacional [Motivational interviewing].

Evidences for the transcultural origin of emotion].

Dual Parallel Process in Crisis Situations: Motivational Foundation

Making sense of our emotions. Such emotional cognitive attitudes include, among others, the filtering of irreversible loss underlying the sadness that, by prevailing and recurring, constitutes a general emotional state of sub-clinical depression; the filtering of threat, which by prevailing constitutes a general emotional state of anxiety; the filtering of offense, which by prevailing determines an emotional state of anger; the filtering of defiance, which by prevailing determines an emotional state of challenge; the filtering of harm, which by prevailing determines an emotional state of fear; the filtering of loss of control, which by prevailing determines an emotional lizarraaga of hopelessness; or the filtering of transgression, which by prevailing determines an emotional state of guilt.

On the other hand, secondary appraisal, referring to outcome expectations a person has, based on the efficacy motivaciomal to the avoidance behaviors enntrevista person exhibits, and to personal self-efficacy expectations to these.