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Language is a well-defined homogeneous object in the heterogeneous mass of speech facts.

Course in General Linguistics – Wikipedia

Kinguistica to Saussure, the geographic study of languages deals with external, not internal, linguistics. That is, though twenty and two might be arbitrary representations of a numerical concept, twenty-twotwenty-three etc.

Both components of the linguistic sign are inseparable. According to Saussure, language is not a nomenclature. Sets always involve a similarity, but difference is a prerequisite, otherwise none of the items would be distinguishable from one another: In Saussure’s view, linhuistica words are born out of a particular society’s needs, rather than out of a need to label a pre-existing set of concepts. Initially, there is no difference between the language spoken by the saaussure on the new island and their homeland counterparts, in spite of the obvious geographical disconnect.

The relationship between signifier and signified is, however, not quite that simple.

Course in General Linguistics French: The sound pattern is a psychological, not a material concept, belonging to the system. No two people have precisely the same concept of “tree,” since no two cirso have precisely the same experiences or psychology. The relations characterizing languages in contact are in stark contrast to the relations of languages in isolation.


Geographical linguistics, Saussure explains, deals primarily with the study of linguistic diversity across lands, of which there are two kinds: Saussure is adamant that language cannot be considered a collection of names for a collection of objects as it is in the conception that Adam named the animals, for example.

To illustrate this, Saussure uses a chess metaphor. Saussure’s model of differentiation has 2 basic principles: However, Saussure argues that, on closer etymological investigation, onomatopoeic words can, in fact, be unmotivated not sharing a likenessin part evolving from non-onomatopoeic origins.

We can communicate “tree,” however, for the same reason we can communicate at all: By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Fereinand invites readers to note the contrast in pain interjection in French aie and English ouch. These two forms of relation open linguistics up to phonologymorphology genrral, syntax and semantics.

Curso De Linguistica General

To consider a language synchronically is to study it “as a complete system re a given point in time,” a perspective he calls the AB axis. It then follows from these principles that dialects have no natural boundary, since at any geographical point a particular language is undergoing some change. Language is not complete in any speaker: Language is “a system of signs that express ideas”.

Intercourse can prevent dialectical fragmentation by suppressing linguistic innovations; cursso can also propagate innovations throughout an area encompassing different populations.


Saussure argues that we should be concerned not only with the CD axis, linguistca was the focus of attention in his day, but also with the AB axis because, he says, language is “a system of pure values which are determined by nothing except the momentary arrangements of its terms”. Likewise, in syntax, through paradigmatic and syntagmatic analysis, we can discover the grammatical rules for constructing sentences: Relative motivation refers to the compositionality of the linguistic system, along the saussufe of an immediate constituent analysis.

Language is therefore a system of interdependent entities.

Curso de Linguistica General : Biblioteca de Obras Maestras del Pensamiento

The example he uses is the French and English onomatopoeic words for a dog’s generla, that is ouaoua and Bow Wow. Taking a monoglot community as his model that is, a community which speaks only one languageSaussure outlines the manner in which a language might develop and gradually undergo subdivision into distinct dialects.

fedinand Speech is many-sided and heterogeneous: We could study the game diachronically how the rules change through time or synchronically the actual rules. Since all that is important is agreement and consistency, the connection is arbitrary. For Saussure, time is the primary catalyst of linguistic diversity, not distance. Retrieved from ” https: