We used the handbook as developed by Frans Geilfus, which covers 80 tools for participatory development as an important base for this tools guide. A selection. Geilfus, Frans. 80 tools for participatory development: appraisal, planning, follow- up and evaluation / Frans Geilfus. — San Jose, C.R.: IICA,. p. ; 24 cm. Title: “80 Herramientas para el desarrollo participativo” de Frans Geilfus (IICA, ), Author: brenda chau pasco, Name: “80 Herramientas para el desarrollo.

Author: Faukree Fenrilrajas
Country: Togo
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Spiritual
Published (Last): 27 July 2017
Pages: 372
PDF File Size: 16.53 Mb
ePub File Size: 3.73 Mb
ISBN: 560-7-45925-388-6
Downloads: 79878
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Dimuro

This may frwns the expansion of lakes, which are currently estimated to emit as much as 13 to Geochemistry of west Siberian streams and their potential response to permafrost degradation.

Carbon released during river base flow appears more labile than summer carbon fluxes Wickland et al.

Mulch-L mailing list correspondence

Vast sediment flows can be seen entering the ocean, containing large amounts of carbon from the terrestrial environment. Inorganic carbon transport during sea ice growth and decay: Sea ice retreat is likely to enhance the uptake of CO 2 in coastal shelf regions. Climate of the Past. Since there are many factors connecting the two environments together, a strong effort needs to be made to better understand and improve simulations of linkages between the Arctic Ocean and the land.

A shift of thermokarst lakes from carbon sources to sinks during the Holocene epoch. Activation of old carbon by erosion of coastal and subsea permafrost in Arctic Siberia.

Potential carbon emissions dominated by carbon dioxide from thawed permafrost soils. Ali, Genevieve, Claire J.

Role of sea ice in global biogeochemical cycles: Further observations of a decreasing atmospheric CO 2 uptake capacity in the Canada Basin Arctic Ocean due to sea ice loss. In addition, multiple fluxes are closely associated to sea ice. Alternatively, soil subsidence due to permafrost thaw may create new depressions in the landscape, increasing wetness Lee et al.


Other changes opposing production-driven p CO 2sw drawdown include increasing sea surface temperatures Steele et al.

Climate sensitivity of shrub growth across the tundra biome. Low temperatures and wet conditions prevail in landscapes across the Arctic, and these conditions favor low decomposition rates, and the accumulation and preservation of organic matter. Vancoppenolle, Martin, Klaus M.

El arbol al servicio del agricultor: Guia de especies – Frans Geilfus – Google Books

However, it should be noted that not all investigations have confirmed enhanced gas transfer in such environments Rutgers van der Loeff et al. Circumpolar assessment of permafrost C quality and its vulnerability over time using long-term incubation data. Anna Trough northern Kara Seas: An expansion of shrubs could therefore locally counteract permafrost thaw. Hecht edAgroecology and Small Farm Development. The Arctic Franw carbon sink.

Highland maize from Central Mexico – Its origin, characteristics and use in breeding programs.

A parameter model of gas exchange for the seasonal sea ice zone. Modern thermokarst lake dynamics in the continuous permafrost zone, northern Seward Peninsula. Jantunen, and Robie W. The degradation potential of OC released from thawing permafrost gsilfus also an important factor: For example, an analysis of three decades of atmospheric measurements in Barrow, Alaska, showed that methane emissions had not increased despite increasing temperatures in the region Sweeney et al.

There are a total of households. An assessment of the Atlantic and Arctic sea—air CO 2 geilcus, — The lower number from observations is largely in agreement with the review of bottom-up BU and top-down TD methane emission estimates by Kirschke et al. Terrestrial biosphere models can also be applied to identify links to sea ice decline either dynamically through coupling to frand climate models, to evaluate processes at a higher resolution see e.


In the ocean, process-focussed research on the fate of the terrestrial carbon is required.

Marine Ecology Progress Series, Implications for mixed-layer ventilation of CO2 in the seasonal ice zone. His research is focused on function and structure of the Arctic marine ecosystem, with emphasis on the coastal zone around Greenland. Shrubs shield the ground from solar radiation, effectively cooling the ground Blok et al. Evaluating the land and ocean components of the global gellfus cycle in the CMIP5 earth system models. Gupta, Mukesh, Randall K.

Besides lateral flows geklfus carbon that can affect the rfans, the reverse is also true: Integration of the arctic carbon cycle and consequences for future projections Implications of sea ice decline for the terrestrial Arctic Besides lateral flows of carbon that can affect the ocean, the reverse is also true: Increase in the rate gielfus uniformity of coastline erosion in Arctic Alaska.

Inaccurate representation of marine processes i. Winter observations of CO 2 exchange between sea ice and the atmosphere in a coastal fjord environment.

To the northwest there are schools, the church, the health center, and the market. A winter flux time series.