Description & Remarks. @More on this species in the Shroud of Turin, December 2nd See more from the Botanic Library. Gundelia tournefortii is a PERENNIAL growing to m (1ft 4in). The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. Gundelia tournefortii (Asteraceae): Each spiny bur (involucre) contains one seed- bearing achene. Out of twelve bur-like husks, only three contained potentially.
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Correspondence should be addressed to Hilal Zaid ; moc. This is an tournwfortii access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. In the present in vitro study, we tested the chemical composition, cytotoxicity and antidiabetic activity of two distinct extracts of wild Artichoke-like vegetable, Gundelia tournefortii: Only Stigmasterol was present in both extracts.
The efficacy of G. The methanol extract was the most efficient in GLUT4 translocation enhancement. These findings indicate that G. Plants produce a remarkably diverse array of thousands of secondary metabolites. In addition to their tournefotrii in the defense of plants against changing environmental conditions, they were reported to be beneficial in treating animals and human being diseases [ 1 — 4 ].
The phytochemicals, polysaccharides, flavonoids [ 5 ], terpenoids, tannins and steroids [ 6 ], and others, were reported to possess antidiabetic activity [ 2 ]. Metformin and resveratrol, two main antidiabetic drugs, were derived from medicinal plants [ 7 ]. Circulating glucose levels can be balanced through controlling glucose production and utilization or through increasing insulin secretion and effectiveness as well as through increasing energy expenditure or reduction of energy intake [ 89 ].
The natural herbs for diabetes treatment focus on lowering blood sugar and minimizing the damaging effects of the disease.
The action mechanism s of antidiabetic plants are usually insulin tournfeortii, sensitizer, and secretagogues gundella well as inhibitors of intestinal carbohydrate digestion and absorption [ 231011 ].
Insulin sensitizers include plants that increase glucose uptake and disposal by muscle, fat, and hepatic cells and those that regulate hepatic glycogen metabolism. For instance, garlic Allium sativum and onion Allium cepa were reported to decrease blood glucose levels by normalizing liver glucosephosphatase and hexokinase activity [ 12 ].
Black cumin Nigella sativa and cinnamon Cinnamomum officinalis were suggested to have insulin mimetic properties, through enhancing insulin signaling pathway independently of insulin [ 1314 ].
We had recently tested several medicinal plants extracts mechanisms in increasing glucose uptake and found that Trigonella foenum-graecumUrtica dioicaAtriplex halimusCinnamomum officianalisand Ocimum tourneforti increase glucose gunddelia by enhancing the glucose transporter 4 GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane [ 910 ]. Glucose uptake into skeletal muscle is mediated by the facilitative glucose transporter-4 GLUT4a membrane protein that continuously recycles between intracellular vessels and the plasma membrane PM.
Wild Artichoke-like vegetable, Gundelia tournefortiiis one of the traditional used antidiabetic herbs. It is considered as tojrnefortii of the highest cultural importance valuable eatable wild species in Palestine [ 16 ]. In the Greco-Arab medicine, G.
Oral administration of G. The aim of the present study was tourneforrtii evaluate the chemical composition of G. Polyclonal anti-myc A and other standard chemicals were purchased from Sigma. Gundelia tournefortii aerial parts were collected from the Galil area in Israel in March bundelia Forty grams of the air-dried aerial parts of G.
Rotary vacuum evaporator was used to concentrate the methanol extract. The yield of the extracts was found to be 3.
The percentages of the phytochemical components were calculated from the GC peak areas by normalization. MTT 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide is a water soluble tetrazolium salt. Once delivered to the mitochondria, it is converted to an insoluble purple formazan by succinate dehydrogenase. As such, the formazan product accumulates only in healthy cells [ 23 ].
Two wells per plate without cells served as blank. All experiments were repeated three times in triplicate. The effect of the plants extracts on cell viability was expressed using the following formula: LDH, a cytoplasmic enzyme, release is the consequence of cell membrane breach. Cell membrane breach was ttournefortii as the ratio of LDH activity in the cell culture medium of treated cells relative to the LDH activity released in the control cells. The experiments were performed in triplicate.
The following formula effect was used to calculate the plant extracts effect on cell viability: Surface myc-tagged GLUT4 was measured in intact cells as described previously [ 1024 ] using anti-myc antibody followed by horseradish peroxidase conjugated secondary antibody. Background absorbance obtained from 3 wells in each well plate untreated with anti- myc antibody was subtracted from all values. Several traditional used antidiabetic medicinal plants were reported to exert their hypoglycemic effects through increasing glucose transporter GLUT translocation to the plasma membrane in muscle, liver, and hepatic tissue [ 2526 ].
Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the role of GLUT4 translocation in the observed antidiabetic G. Moreover, the chemical composition of G. Resolution, selectivity, and elution time were obtained on the capillary GC HP-5 column.
We noticed gundleia peaks culminated. The derivatization of the secondary metabolites of G. Figures 1 and 2 show the total ion chromatograms TICs of the hexane and methanol tourbefortii. Only one mutual compound, Stigmasterol, was mutual in the two extracts Table 1. The efficacy studies were performed at concentrations less than the safe concentration for each extract.
Skeletal muscle and liver are the primary tissues responsible for dietary glucose uptake and disposal.
In muscle and adipose tissues, insulin promotes the exocytic traffic of intracellular GLUT4 vessels towards the plasma gundeila to elicit a rapid increase in glucose uptake [ 82526 ]. Some of the antidiabetic synthetic drugs and medicinal plant-based products bypass the insulin resistance by increasing GLUT4 translocation in insulin dependent or independent pathway [ 4 ]. Insulin increases GLUT4 translocation to the surface of myoblasts, where it mediates the increase in glucose uptake [ 826 ].
A similar effect was appreciated in the presence of insulin Figure 7. One of the detected compounds in G. Intestinally, palmitic acid was recently reported by our group to be found in three deferent Ocimum basilicum L.
Ocimum basilicum was reported as antidiabetic herb and palmitic ghndelia was suggested to take an essential role in the plant extracts antidiabetic activity [ 10 ]. Concomitant with our previous reported results, palmitic acid was detected only in the MeOH extract of G.
It is possible then that G. It is essential to dissect G. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. The mentioned received funding did not lead to any ggundelia of interest regarding the publication of this manuscript. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
Gundelia tournefortii L. | Flora of Israel Online
Indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded. Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. Table of Contents Alerts. Abstract In the present in vitro study, we tested the chemical composition, cytotoxicity and antidiabetic activity of two distinct extracts of wild Artichoke-like vegetable, Gundelia tournefortii: Introduction Plants produce a remarkably diverse array of thousands of secondary metabolites.
Materials and Methods 2. Plant Extract Preparation Gundelia tournefortii aerial parts were collected from the Galil area in Israel in March Identification of Components The percentages of the phytochemical components were calculated from the GC peak areas by normalization. Determination of Surface GLUT4myc Surface myc-tagged GLUT4 was measured in intact cells as described gundelis [ 1024 ] using anti-myc antibody followed by horseradish peroxidase conjugated secondary antibody.
Total ion chromatogram TIC of G.
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Chemical structure of major components in G. GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. De Nigris, and A. View at Google Scholar D.