Here, we will look at socially motivated changes in language such as language reforms .. Available online at: Retrieved from http:// is never any one Retrieved from Shih, C., & Gamon, J. (). Web- based learning: Relationships among students motivation, attitude, learning styles and. Capturing socially motivated linguistic change: How the use of gender-fair language affects . Available online at: .

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Because we predicted only the two-way interaction of linguistic form and goal of the initiative and that the interaction of participant gender and linguistic form observed in Study 1 would be replicated, we used Model 2 in the Hayes SPSS macro, testing the interactions of the qt predictor linguistic form with the two remaining factors 6. Macht und Sprache [Power and language]. However, no such difference was observed for women. PLLP—Power of language or language of power.

Mucchi-Faina, ; Merkel et al.

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The initiative supported affirmative action either for women or for students from countries affected by war. However, if gender-fair language is rejected solely because of its novelty, then the effect observed in Study 1 should be independent of the goal of an initiative. To support the cover story, the initiative was described in the layout of a popular opinion magazine in Poland. However, in Austria, where gender-fair language is well known and fairly established, we expected gender-fair forms to trigger highly positive reactions than the traditional use of the masculine.

Hence, over time, politically correct language can be reasonably assumed to become a linguistic standard and thus may then trigger positive evaluation among its users. The curse it is cast.

In other words, while women’s evaluations of the gender equality initiative were independent of the linguistic form employed, men’s evaluations were less favorable when the proponents were referred to in the feminine than in the masculine. Using the same research paradigm to examine these two countries and languages representing different stages of linguistic reform, allowed the indirect study of the longitudinal effects of socially motivated language reform. Study 1 was conducted in Poland via Internet.

The most important conclusion to draw from our studies is that language policies aiming at political correctness should not be evaluated rashly. Participants indicated whether the initiative 1 was generally popular, 2 was governed by genuine concern for other people, 3 was good for the system of higher education; and had the potential of increasing 4 the prestige of higher education in Poland, 5 the quality of schooling, 6 the competitiveness of Polish institutions of higher education, and 7 should be implemented at all Polish institutions of higher education.


While this usage is well established in Austria, it is relatively novel in Poland. Terrorism salience increases system justification: The announcement described the study as a 5-min survey on the development of the system of higher education in Austria.

However, a serious limitation of Study 1 is that the social initiative presented was about gender equality. Language reforms and gender in equality. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. We tested this assumption by comparing two speech communities where grammatical gender languages are spoken Polish in Poland and German in Austriawhich substantially differ with respect to gender-fair usage.

Moreover, we asked their opinions on factors influencing women’s positions in the job market. Horvath 3 and Sabine Sczesny 1.

Study 2 aimed to replicate the effect of linguistic form found in Study 1.

This conclusion may be helpful for wwe and policymakers when advocating changes that at first appear to have detrimental side-effects.

The first study was a pilot study, and at the time, no institutional approval was needed in Poland for pilot studies. Consistent with other studies on German Vervecken and Hannover,Study 3 on Austrian German showed that designating women with gender-fair feminine forms led to higher support for all types of initiative than motibation the female proponents were labeled with masculine forms.

Other job titles show a semantic asymmetry: Our findings may offer an explanatory framework for the results of earlier studies, which report both positive and negative speaker perceptions of gender-fair wording e.

According to psychologist Magda Leska, initiator of the campaign, this would promote the development of economic life, science, and factual gender equality [gender goal] vs. In Polish, feminine forms of some role nouns can easily be derived with the suffix – ka e.

Contemporary arguments against nonsexist language: The introduction contained the following manipulation. In Study 1 the support for a social initiative might have been influenced by both, the linguistic form and the readiness to accept gender quotas.

Motivationstheorien nach Kirsten Tiggewerth-Kemper by Hans Peter on Prezi

In this study, we examine how the use of gender-fair language affects readers’ support for social initiatives in Poland and Ecuhi. Linguistik und Frauensprache [Linguistics and women’s language].


Finally, participants were asked for their comments and were provided with debriefing information about the study. Matrix of correlation coefficients across all three studies.

Language, Cognition and Gender. Presently, job advertisements must be phrased in a gender-fair way, e. Edui to gender-fair language may be particularly strong in a gender equality context, where both the topic of discussion and language dduhi may suggest a feminist stance. The elections were preceded by a nationwide debate about introducing quotas for women for the election lists.

Proponents of gender-fair language were also judged motivatioj overly sensitive and preoccupied with non-essential matters Parks and Roberton, For the times they are a-changin’.

On the website, the study was announced as a 3-min survey concerning democracy. In daily life, it is quite common to use academic titles when introducing people. There was a gender difference in the evaluation of the initiatives, as men rated the initiatives less favorably than women. Moreover, the positive effect of gender-fair language, especially of feminine forms referring to a group of women only, a evaluations of the initiative suggests that this usage has become so familiar to speakers of Austrian German that failing to use morivation decreased participants’ support for the initiative.

Although grammatical gender languages are spoken in both countries, they differ considerably in the use of gender-fair language. Answers to these questions could vary from 1 definitely not to 7 definitely yes 5. However, this conclusion may be premature as we still do not know the popular reaction to politically correct language after it has been implemented for a longer time.

To avoid associations with in-group interests and to stay clear of ongoing debates about quotas, the gender-related issue in Study 2 involved women professionals helping young female students. Suggest a Research Topic. We tried to overcome this disadvantage by using cross-sectional research that compares different speech communities at different stages of implementing a specific language reform.

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