ABSTRACT. Background: The dengue and chikungunya epidemics have major challenging problems and have become essentially a public health importance. The Chikungunya virus was isolated from mosquitoes and found to be identical to the AV circulating human strain. This is the first field study. Mosquitoes transmit numerous arboviruses including dengue and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Chikungunya is a re-emerging arthropod-borne.
|Published (Last):||24 November 2009|
|PDF File Size:||4.62 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||16.3 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Virion assembly is not well characterized in CHIKV, but also occurs within the cytoplasm, followed by acquisition of a lipid bilayer envelope by budding through the host cell membrane [ 5556 ].
It is essential that thorough clinical workups of patients during acute stages be performed to evaluate for existing disease. Many patients meet the requirements established by the American College of Rheumatology to be diagnosed with RA [ 3540 ]. Chukungunya teks lengkap Bahasa Indonesia, 6 pages. Other cases have demonstrated almost complete resolution of symptoms in months using methotrexate, sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine [ 37 ].
These initial assessments might also be useful for guiding treatment options in patients. The parameters of initial disease severity that have been correlated with chronic disease include presence of joint swelling, severity of joint pain, and a stronger Th1 response with concurrent weak Th2 response during the acute phase of disease [ 2229 ].
Recently, an outbreak began in the western hemisphere and has resulted in over 1. Some significant bony changes, such as obvious erosions, can be seen by months post infection p. A thorough evaluation for any pre-existing joint disease at the time of initial presentation with CHIKV fever, coupled with multiple follow-up examinations at later timepoints of disease would greatly add to our understanding of CHIKV-induced disease.
Manifestasi Klinis Infeksi Virus Chikungunya Pada Kejadian Luar Biasa Di Indonesia – Neliti
In some patients, 6 month treatments with methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine appeared to be of benefit [ 36 ]. Disease characterized by fever accompanied by pain in the joints of the dominant. Additionally, it is possible that some patients develop joint disease such as osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, completely unrelated to the previous CHIKV infection. More recently, two vaccines have entered the clinical trial stage, and both are VLP-based [ 65 ].
Because of the similarities between chronic CHIKV-associated arthralgia and RA, some disease modifying antirheumatic drugs DMARDs such as methotrexate, sulfasalazine, leflunomide and hydroxychloroquine have been utilized [ 40 ]. Chikungunya virus CHIKV is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that circulates predominantly in tropical and cchikungunya regions, potentially affecting over 1 billion people.
However, larger scale, controlled efficacy studies have not been performed to assess the true clinical utility of ribavirin in treating CHIKV-induced disease.
Manifestasi Klinis Infeksi Virus Chikungunya Pada Kejadian Luar Biasa Di Indonesia
Interviews were conducted onsuspectedchikungunya from 6 provinces. Post-Chikungunya rheumatoid arthritis, Saint Martin. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Because of the high viremia associated with disease see Blood and Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Results belowreverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR or chikungynya isolation utilizing cell culture or animal inoculation can be performed during the acute stage, but is only useful at 1 to 2 weeks post-infection [ 1046 ].
Additionally, recommendations are presented regarding avenues for clinical research to help further elucidate the pathogenesis of joint disease associated with CHIKV infection. Some of the more commonly reported comorbidities include hypertension and respiratory or cardiovascular disease [ 929 ]. Chikungunya outbreakremember the arthropathy. A nonhuman primate model of chikungunya disease.
Majalah Kedokteran Nusantara (Journal of Medical School)
Other measures of initial disease severity during acute disease were not associated with development of chronic disease, including initial viral load, number of joints affected, and duration of hospitalization [ 30 ].
Blood and Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Results In the acute stages of the disease, results of a complete blood cell count can be variable, though leukopenia, often as a result of lymphopenia, is one of the most common presentations [ 91925 ].
Arthralgia associated with CHIKV infection is often considered to be the result of tenosynovitis and enthesopathy [ 93741 ] and can be associated with paresthesia of the overlying skin [ 24 ]. Those that have been reported describe vascular junal, perivascular macrophages, and synovial hyperplasia [ 37 ].
Jurnal Biotek Medisiana Indonesia. Explosive re-emergence of chikungunya fever has been started since and affected millions people in worldwide i. There was similarity on disease cluster occurrence between chikungunya and DHF Conclusion: Therefore, definitive diagnosis is required.
Rheumatology Oxford ; 45