Paul Langevin’s theory of diamagnetism () applies to materials containing atoms with closed shells (see. Introduction to solid state physics. WS / M. Wolf sheet Langevin treatment of Diamagnetism. Diamagnetism arises from change of orbital momentum. Relations between the Weber-Langevin theory and that of Pauli. Larmor precession of a diamagnetic atom is shown to be independent of orbital motions and.

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The theory that describes diamagnetism in a free electron gas is called Landau diamagnetismnamed after Lev Landau[16] and instead considers the weak counteracting field that forms when the electrons’ trajectories are curved due to the Lorentz force.

Suppose the field is aligned with the z axis. Substances where the diamagnetic behaviour is the strongest effect are termed diamagnetic materials, or diamagnets. In paramagnetic and ferromagnetic substances the weak diamagnetic force is overcome by the attractive force of magnetic dipoles in the material. Relations between the Weber-Langevin theory and that of Pauli.

If a powerful magnet such as a supermagnet is covered with a layer of water that is thin compared to the diameter of the magnet then the field of the magnet significantly repels the water.

This can be done with all components at room temperature, making a visually effective demonstration of diamagnetism. The first theory gives a band for the Zeeman effect; the second, which is based on Larmor precession, gives sharp lines, as is known. The magnetic susceptibility values of various molecular fragments are called Pascal’s constants.


These are attracted to field maxima, which do not exist in free space. The Langevin theory is not the full picture lngevin metals because they have non-localized electrons. Paul Langevin ‘s theory of diamagnetism [15] applies to materials containing atoms with closed shells see dielectrics. Thus it might be imagined that diamagnetism effects in general would be common, since any applied magnetic field would generate currents in these loops that would oppose the change, in a similar way to superconductors, which are essentially perfect diamagnets.


Most spectacularly, a live frog see figure was levitated. The general law is similar to that for magnetic double-refraction, alignment approaching completeness and diamagnetic susceptibility approaching a minimum as H increases and temperature decreases.

However, the classical theory of Langevin for diamagnetism gives the same prediction as the quantum theory. The formula presented here only applies for the bulk; in confined systems like quantum dotsthe description is altered due to quantum confinement. The susceptibilities, K 1 and K 2are different except when the orbits are normal to the intensity H of the magnetic field.

The magnetic moment of a current loop is equal to the current times the area of the loop. Earnshaw’s theorem seems to preclude the possibility of static magnetic levitation. In Langevin showed that the magnetic field tends to orient unsymmetrical diamagnetic atoms, so as to make the magnitude of the extraneous flux through the orbits a minimum.

Electric and magnetic fields in matter Magnetic levitation Magnetism. Thus this theory cannot explain the recent results of Glaser on the variation of susceptibility with pressure; it is suggested that these may possibly be due to a quantization resulting from the weak magnetic moment produced according to either theory in an intense field. Weyl fermions are observed in a solid. Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field ; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force.

The electrons in a material generally settle in orbitals, with effectively zero resistance and act like current loops. The Radboud University Nijmegenthe Netherlandshas conducted experiments where water and other substances were successfully levitated.

This causes a slight dimple in the water’s surface that may be seen by its reflection. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Received 3 February DOI: The eddy currents then produce an induced magnetic field opposite the applied field, resisting the conductor’s motion.


Diamagnetism is a property of all materials, and always makes a weak contribution to the material’s response to a magnetic field. In most materials diamagnetism lanbevin a weak effect which can only be detected by sensitive laboratory instruments, but a superconductor acts as a strong diamagnet because it repels a magnetic field entirely from its interior.

Vedupro: Langevin Theory of Diamagnetism, Langevin Theory, Langevin’s Magnetism

The Lorentz force on electrons causes them to circulate around forming eddy currents. On a suggestion by William WhewellFaraday first referred to the phenomenon as diamagnetic the prefix dia- meaning through or acrossthen later changed it to diamagnetism.

However, Earnshaw’s theorem applies only to objects with positive susceptibilities, such as ferromagnets which have a permanent positive moment and paramagnets which induce a positive moment. This page was last edited on 26 Novemberat Retrieved from ” https: Abstract Og between the Weber-Langevin theory and that of Pauli.

Retrieved 26 September However, since the electrons are rigidly held in orbitals by the charge of the protons and are further constrained by the Pauli exclusion principlemany materials exhibit diamagetism, but typically respond very little to the applied field. Series I Physics Physique Fizika. All conductors exhibit an effective diamagnetism when they experience a changing magnetic field. In other projects Wikimedia Commons.

In the simplest case, viz. This means that diamagnetic materials are repelled by magnetic fields. When they are parallel to HK 1 vanishes and K 2 is half that for the normal orbits, an extreme case.

Diamagnetism is a quantum mechanical effect that occurs in all materials; when it is the only contribution to the magnetism, the material is called diamagnetic.